All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

Debris Fan Produced by Failure of Canyon-Blocking Pyroclastic Flows

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.165019, PP. 328-360

Keywords: Outburst Flood, Mount Mazama, Debris Fan, Canyon Blockage, Pyroclastic Flows

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Ash-rich pyroclastic flows from the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Mazama (~7700 yr. B. P.), Cascade volcanic arc, Oregon, entered and blocked the narrow, bedrock-lined canyon of the Williamson River approximately 35 to 44 km from the source volcano. The blockage impounded a body of water which then released producing four stratigraphic units in the downstream debris fan. The four stratigraphic units are a boulder core comprised of locally sourced bedrock boulders and three sand-rich units including a fine-grained sand unit, a sandy pumice gravel (±basalt/hydrovolcanic tuff) unit, and a pumice pebble-bearing, crystal-rich sand unit. Hand-drilled auger holes up to ~1.6 m deep were used to obtain samples of the sand-rich units. Units were delimited using surface and down-hole observations, composition and texture, estimated density, statistical parameters of grain size, and vertical and lateral distribution of properties. Overtopping followed by rapid incision into the ash-rich pyroclastic flows progressively cleared the canyon, but a bedrock knickpoint near the head of the canyon limited the volume of debris available for transport to about 0.04 km3 to 0.08 km3. Co-deposition of bedrock boulders and lithic-rich sand was followed by rapid deposition with minimal reworking of remobilized pyroclastics. Continued draining of the impounded lake sent hyperconcentrated flows onto the debris fan depositing pumice-rich gravels that graded upward to crystal-rich sands.

References

[1]  Williams, H. (1942) The Geology of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington.
[2]  Young, S.R. (1990) Physical Volcanology of Holocene Airfall Deposits from Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Lancaster, Lancaster.
[3]  Zdanowicz, C.M., Zielinski, G.A. and Germani, M.S. (1999) Mount Mazama Eruption: Calendrical Age Verified and Atmospheric Impact Assessed. Geology, 27, 621-624.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0621:MMECAV>2.3.CO;2
[4]  Bacon, C.R. and Lanphere, M.A. (2006) Eruptive History and Geochronology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake Region, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 118, 1331-1359.
https://doi.org/10.1130/B25906.1
[5]  Bacon, C.R. (2008) Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2832, scale 1:24,000.
[6]  Jenks, M.D. (2007) Geologic Compilation Map of Part of the Upper Klamath Basin, Klamath County, Oregon. Open-File Report O-07-05, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.
[7]  Cummings, M.L. and Melady, J.S. (2002) Hydrogeology of the Klamath Marsh, Klamath County, Oregon. Proceedings, Klamath Basin Fish & Water Management Symposium, 2001.
[8]  Alexander, K.A., Amos, C.B., Balco, G., Amidon, W.H., Lesnau, R.K., Clark, D. and Meigs, A. (2019) Rates and Kinematics of Active Crustal Faults in the Central Oregon Cascades. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 51.
https://doi.org/10.1130/abs/2019CD-329211
[9]  Alexander, K. (2020) Slip Rates and Kinematics of Active Crustal Faults in the Central Oregon Cascades. M.S. Thesis, Western Washington University, Bellingham.
https://cedar.wwu.edu/wwuet/947
https://doi.org/10.1130/abs/2019CD-329211
[10]  Lind, P. (2009) Holocene Floodplain Development of the Lower Sycan River, Oregon. M.S. Thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene.
[11]  O’Connor, J.E., McDowell, P.F., Lind, P., Rasmussen, C.G. and Keith, M.K. (2015) Geomorphology and Flood-Plain Vegetation of the Sprague and Lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5223.
https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20145223
[12]  Conaway, J.S. (1999) Hydrogeology and Paleohydrology in the Williamson River Basin, Klamath County, Oregon. M.S, Thesis, Portland State University, Portland.
https://doi.org/10.15760/etd.3524
[13]  Cummings, M.L. and Conaway, J.S. (2009) Landscape and Hydrologic Response in the Williamson River Basin Following the Holocene Eruption of Mount Mazama, Cascade Volcanic Arc. In: O’Connor, J.E., Dorsey, R.J., and Madin, I.P., Eds., Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geologic Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of the Pacific Northwest, Geological Society of America, Boulder, 271-294.
https://doi.org/10.1130/2009.fld015(14)
[14]  Lee, C.L. (2000) Magmatic Processes Operating during the Middle to Late Pliocene and Pleistocene Along the Cascades-Basin and Range Transition Zone Near 43˚ North. M.S. Thesis, Portland State University, Portland.
[15]  Conaway, J.S. and Cummings, M.L. (1999) Mid-Holocene Flooding on the Williamson River, Klamath County, Oregon. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 31, A46.
[16]  Baker, V.R. and Ritter, D.F. (1975) Competence of Rivers to Transport Coarse Bed-load Material, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 86, 975-978.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1975)86<975:CORTTC>2.0.CO;2
[17]  Costa, J.E. (1983) Paleohydraulic Reconstruction of Flash-Flood Peaks from Boulder Deposits in the Colorado Front Range. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 94, 986-1004.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1983)94<986:PROFPF>2.0.CO;2
[18]  Komar, P.D. (1989) Flow-Competence Evaluations of the Hydraulic Parameters of Floods: An Assessment of the Technique. In: Beven, K. and Carling, P., Eds., Floods-Hydrological, Sedimentological, and Geomorphological Implications, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 107-134.
[19]  O’Connor, J.E. (1993) Geological Society of America Special Paper 274. Geological Society of America, Boulder.
https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE274-p1
[20]  Costa, J.E. and Schuster, R.L. (1988) The Formation and Failure of Natural Dams. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 100, 1054-1068.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1054:TFAFON>2.3.CO;2
[21]  Walder, J.S. and O’Connor, J.E. (1997) Methods of Predicting Peak Discharge of Floods Caused by Failure of Natural and Constructed Earthen Dams. Water Resources Research, 33, 2337-2348.
https://doi.org/10.1029/97WR01616
[22]  O’Connor, J.E. and Beebee, R.A. (2009) Floods from Natural Rock-Material Dams. In: Burr, D.M., Carling, P.A. and Baker, V.R., Eds., Megaflooding on Earth and Mars, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 128-171.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511635632.008
[23]  Froehlich, D.C. (1987) Embankment-Dam Breach Parameters. In: Ragan, R.M., Ed., Proceedings of 1987 National Conference on Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 570-575.
[24]  Wahl, T.L. (2004) Uncertainty of Predictions of Embankment Dam Breach Parameters. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130, 389-397.
https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2004)130:5(389)
[25]  Nemec, W. and Muszynski, A. (1982) Volcaniclastic Alluvial Aprons in the Tertiary of Sofia District (Bulgaria). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, 52, 239-303.
[26]  Pierson, T.C. and Scott, K.M. (1985) Downstream Dilution of a Lahar: Transition from Debris Flow to Hyperconcentrated Streamflow. Water Resources Research, 21, 1511-1524.
https://doi.org/10.1029/WR021i010p01511
[27]  Smith, G.A. (1986) Coarse-Grained Nonmarine Volcaniclastic Sediment: Terminology and Depositional Process. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 97, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1986)97<1:CNVSTA>2.0.CO;2
[28]  Park, C. and Schmincke, H.-U. (1997) Lake Formation and Catastrophic Dam Burst during the Late Pleistocene Laacher See Eruption (Germany). Naturwissenschaften, 84, 521-525.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s001140050438
[29]  Manville, V. (2002) Sedimentary and Geomorphic Response to Ignimbrite Emplacement: Readjustment of the Waikato River after the AD 181 Taupo Eruption, New Zealand. The Journal of Geology, 110, 519-542.
https://doi.org/10.1086/341596
[30]  Macίas, J.L., Capra, L., Scott, K.M., Espadola, J.M., Garca-Palomo, A. and Costa, J.E. (2004) The 26 May 1982 Breakout Flows Derived from Failure of a Volcanic Dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 116, 233-246.
https://doi.org/10.1130/B25318.1
[31]  Hodgson, K.A. and Nairn. I.A. (2005) The c. AD 1315 Syn-Eruption and AD 1904 Post-Eruption Breakout Floods from Lake Tarawera, Haroharo Caldera, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 48, 491-506.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2005.9515128
[32]  Folk, R.L. (1980) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill Publishing Company, Austin.
[33]  Smith, G.A. and Smith, R.D. (1985) Specific Gravity Characteristics of Recent Volcaniclastic Sediment: Implications for Sorting and Grain Size Analysis. Journal of Geology, 93, 619-622.
https://doi.org/10.1086/628986
[34]  Manville, V., Segschneider, B. and White, J.D.L. (2002) Hydrodynamic Behavior of Taupo 1800a Pumice: Implications for the Sedimentology of Remobilized Pyroclasts. Sedimentology, 49, 955-976.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3091.2002.00485.x
[35]  Manville, V., Newton, E.H. and White, J.D.L. (2005) Fluvial Responses to Volcanism: Resedimentation of the 1800a Taupo Ignimbrite Eruption in the Rangitaiki River Catchment, North Island, New Zealand. Geomorphology, 65, 49-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.07.007
[36]  Capra, L. (2007) Volcanic Natural Dams: Identification, Stability, and Secondary Effects. Natural Hazards, 43, 45-61.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-006-9101-2
[37]  O’Connor, J.E., Clague, J.J., Walder, J.S., Manville V. and Beebee, R.A. (2013) 9.25 Outburst Floods. In: Shroder, J. and Wohl, E.E., Eds., Treatise on Geomorphology, Academic Press, San Diego, 475-510.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374739-6.00251-7
[38]  Pierson, T.C., Janda, R.J., Thouret, J-C. and Berrero, C.A. (1990) Perturbation and Melting of Snow and Ice by the 13 November 1985 Eruption of Nevada del Ruiz, Colombia, and Consequent Mobilization, Flow and Deposition of Lahars. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 41, 17-66.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0273(90)90082-Q
[39]  Manville, V., Hodgson, K.A. and Nairn, I.A. (2007) A Review of Break-Out Floods from Volcanogenic Lakes in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 50, 131-150.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00288300709509826
[40]  Macίas, J.L., Sheridan, M.F. and Espadola, J.M. (1997) Reappraisal of the 1982 Eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: New Data from Proximal Deposits. Bulletin of Volcanology, 58, 459-471.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s004450050155
[41]  Manville, V., White, J.D.L., Houghton, B.F. and Wilson, C.J.N. (1999) Paleohydrology and Sedimentology of a Post-1.8 ka Breakout Flood from Intracaldera Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 111, 1435-1447.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1999)111<1435:PASOAP>2.3.CO;2
[42]  Kataoka, K.S., Urabe, A., Manville, V. and Kajiyama, A. (2008) Breakout Flood from an Ignimbrite-Dammed Valley after the 5 ka Numazawako Eruption, Northeast Japan. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 120, 1233-1247.
https://doi.org/10.1130/B26159.1
[43]  Waythomas, C.F., Walder, J.S., McGimsey, R.G. and Neal, C.A. (1996) A Catastrophic Flood Caused by Drainage of a Caldera Lake at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, and Implications for Volcanic Hazards Assessment. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, 861-871.
https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1996)108<0861:ACFCBD>2.3.CO;2
[44]  Waythomas, C.F. (2001) Formation and Failure of Volcanic Debris Dams in the Chakachatna River Valley Associated with Eruptions of the Spurr Volcanic Complex, Alaska. Geomorphology, 39, 111-129.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(00)00097-0
[45]  Snyder, C.T., Hardman, G., and Zdeneck, F.F. (1964) Pleistocene Lakes in the Great Basin. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-416, scale 1:1,000,000.
[46]  Benvenuti, M. and Martini, I.P. (2002) Analysis of Terrestrial Hyperconcentrated Floods and Their Deposits. In: Martini, I.P., Baker, V.R. and Garzón, G., Eds., Flood and Megaflood Processes and Deposits: Recent and Ancient Special Publication 32, International Association of Sedimentologists, Bern, 167-193.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304299.ch10
[47]  Scott, K.M. (1988) Origins, Behavior, and Sedimentology of Lahars and Lahar-Runout Flows in the Toutle-Cowlitz River System. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1447-A.
https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1447A
[48]  Wiley, T.J. (2004) Geologic Map of the Fort Klamath Quadrangle, Klamath County, Oregon. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, GMS 96, Scale 1:24,000.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413