All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

How Can Games Be Functional in the Implementation of Long-Term Athletic Development (LTAD) in Youth Sports?
—Exploratory Learning Experiences and Opportunities to Increase Physical Efficiency

DOI: 10.4236/ape.2024.142003, PP. 27-45

Keywords: Games, Athletic Development, Small-Sided Games, Learning Environments, Movement Development

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The literature highlights the search for alternative methodological and organizational models to traditional ones that often conceal the risk of early specialization. Long-Term Athletic Development (LTAD) is a model of sports initiation that aims to reduce the risk of early specialization. The potential of games in teaching physical education and LTAD in sports is explored. Games are configured as the content that ensures learning continuity between preschool play and recreational experiences and sports activities. The dynamic ecological methodological approach characterizes play-based teaching and allows for the solicitation of free exploration and guided discovery: increased search for original solutions, increased motor engagement time and teaching styles by production can ensure the quality and transferability of motor learning. Subject-specific literature becomes a necessary support to legitimize these methodological choices in LTAD.

References

[1]  Abad Robles, M. T., Collado-Mateo, D., Fernández-Espínola, C., Castillo Viera, E., & Giménez Fuentes-Guerra, F. J. (2020). Effects of Teaching Games on Decision Making and Skill Execution: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, Article 505.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020505
[2]  Abate Daga, F., Baseggio, L., Gollin, M., & Beratto, L. (2020). Game-Based versus Multilateral Approach: Effects of a 12-Week Program on Motor Skill Acquisition and Physical Fitness Development in Soccer School Children. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 60, 1185-1193.
https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10726-6
[3]  Alcaraz-Muñoz, V., Cifo Izquierdo, M. I., Gea García, G. M., Alonso Roque, J. I., & Yuste Lucas, J. L. (2020). Joy in Movement: Traditional Sporting Games and Emotional Experience in Elementary Physical Education. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 588640.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.588640
[4]  Allender, S., Cowburn, G., & Foster, C. (2006). Understanding Participation in Sport and Physical Activity among Children and Adults: A Review of Qualitative Studies. Health Education Research, 21, 826-835.
https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyl063
[5]  Apidogo, J. B., Burdack, J., & Schöllhorn, W. I. (2021). Repetition without Repetition or Differential Learning of Multiple Techniques in Volleyball? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, Article 10499.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910499
[6]  Apidogo, J. B., Burdack, J., & Schöllhorn, W. I. (2022). Learning Multiple Movements in Parallel—Accurately and in Random Order, or Each with Added Noise? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, Article 10960.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710960
[7]  Araújo, D., & Davids, K. (2011). What Exactly Is Acquired during Skill Acquisition? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 18, 7-23.
[8]  Araújo, D., Davids, K., & Hristovski, R. (2006). The Ecological Dynamics of Decision Making in Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 653-676.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.07.002
[9]  Araújo, D., Hristovski, R., Seifert, L., Carvalho, J., & Davids, K. (2017). Ecological Cognition: Expert Decision-Making Behaviour in Sport. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 1-25.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1349826
[10]  Barba-Martín, R. A., Bores-García, D., Hortigüela-Alcalá, D., & González-Calvo, G. (2020). The Application of the Teaching Games for Understanding in Physical Education. Systematic Review of the Last Six Years. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, Article 3330.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093330
[11]  Behan, S., Belton, S., Peers, C., O’Connor, N. E., & Issartel, J. (2022). Exploring the Relationships between Fundamental Movement Skills and Health Related Fitness Components in Children. European Journal of Sport Science, 22, 171-181.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1847201
[12]  Belcher, B. R., Berrigan, D., Dodd, K. W., Emken, B. A., Chou, C. P., & Spruijt-Metz, D. (2010). Physical Activity in US Youth: Effect of Race/Ethnicity, Age, Gender, and Weight Status. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42, 2211-2221.
https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e1fba9
[13]  Bergmann, F., Gray, R., Wachsmuth, S., & Höner, O. (2021). Perceptual-Motor and Perceptual-Cognitive Skill Acquisition in Soccer: A Systematic Review on the Influence of Practice Design and Coaching Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article 772201.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.772201
[14]  Bernstein, N. (1967). The Co-Ordination and Regulation of Movements. Pergamon Press.
[15]  Bunker, D., & Thorpe, R. (1982). A Model for the Teaching of Games in Secondary Schools. The Bulletin of Physical Education, 18, 5-8.
[16]  Burton, A. M., Eisenmann, J. C., Cowburn, I., Lloyd, R. S., & Till, K. (2022). Youth Motor Competence across Stages of Maturity: Perceptions of Physical Education Teachers and Strength and Conditioning Coaches. PLOS ONE, 17, e0277040.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277040
[17]  Chaouachi, A., Chtara, M., Hammami, R., Chtara, H., Turki, O., & Castagna, C. (2014). Multidirectional Sprints and Small-Sided Games Training Effect on Agility and Change of Direction Abilities in Youth Soccer. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28, 3121-3127.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000505
[18]  Chaput, J. P., Willumsen, J., Bull, F., Chou, R., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Jago, R., Ortega, F. B., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2020). 2020 WHO Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour for Children and Adolescents Aged 5-17 Years: Summary of the Evidence. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17, Article No. 141.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01037-z
[19]  Chow, J. Y., Button, C., Davids, K., & Koh, M. (2007a). Variation in Coordination of a Discrete Multiarticular Action as a Function of Skill Level. Journal of Motor Behavior, 39, 463-479.
https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.6.463-480
[20]  Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Shuttleworth, R., Button, C., Renshaw, I., & Araújo, D. (2007b). From Processes to Principles: A Constraints-Led Approach to Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU). Review of Educational Research, 77, 251-278.
https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430305615
[21]  Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button C., J. Y., & Renshaw, I. (2015). Nonlinear Pedagogy in Skill Acquisition: An Introduction. Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315813042
[22]  Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., & Araúo, D. (2006). Nonlinear Pedagogy: A Constraints-Led Framework to Understanding Emergence of Game Play and Skills. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 10, 71-103.
[23]  Cohen, D. D., Voss, C., Taylor, M. J., Delextrat, A., Ogunleye, A. A., & Sandercock, G. R. (2011). Ten-Year Secular Changes in Muscular Fitness in English Children. Acta Paediatrica, 100, e175-e177.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02318.x
[24]  Colella, D. (2016), Stili di insegnamento, apprendimento motorio e processo educativo. Formazione & Insegnamento, XIV, 25-34.
[25]  Colella, D. (2019). Insegnamento e apprendimento delle competenze motorie. Processi e Relazioni. Formazione & Insegnamento, XVII, 73-88.
[26]  Colella, D., & Morano, M. (2011). Gross Motor Development and Physical Activity in Kindergarten Age Children. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6, 33-36.
https://doi.org/10.3109/17477166.2011.613661
[27]  Colella, D., Monacis, D., & Limone, P. (2020). Active Breaks and Motor Competencies Development in Primary School: A Systematic Review. Advances in Physical Education, 10, 233-250.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2020.103020
[28]  Crane, J., & Temple, V. (2015). A Systematic Review of Dropout from Organized Sport among Children and Youth. European Physical Education Review, 21, 114-131.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X14555294
[29]  Croft, J. L., Pepping, G. J., Button, C., & Chow, J. Y. (2018). Children’s Perception of Action Boundaries and How It Affects Their Climbing Behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166, 134-146.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.07.012
[30]  Davids, K., Handford, C., & Williams, M. A. (1994). The Natural Physical Alternative to Cognitive Theories of Motor Behaviour: An Invitation for Interdisciplinary Research in Sports Science? Journal of Sports Sciences, 12, 495-528.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419408732202
[31]  Diaz del Campo, D. G., Gonzalez Villora, S., Garcia Lopez, L. M., & Mitchell, S. (2011). Differences in Decision-Making Development between Expert and Novice Invasion Game Players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112, 871-888.
https://doi.org/10.2466/05.10.11.25.PMS.112.3.871-888
[32]  Fajen, B. R. (2005). Perceiving Possibilities for Action: on the Necessity of Calibration and Perceptual Learning for the Visual Guidance of Action. Perception, 34, 717-740.
https://doi.org/10.1068/p5405
[33]  Farmer, J., Zhao, X., Van Praag, H., Wodtke, K., Gage, F., & Christie, B. (2004). Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Synaptic Plasticity and Gene Expression in the Dentate Gyrus of Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats in Vivo. Neuroscience, 124, 71-79.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2003.09.029
[34]  Fenner, J. S., Iga, J., & Unnithan, V. (2016). The Evaluation of Small-Sided Games as a Talent Identification Tool in Highly Trained Prepubertal Soccer Players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34, 1983-1990.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1149602
[35]  Formenti, D., Duca, M., Trecroci, A., Ansaldi, L., Bonfanti, L., Alberti, G., & Iodice, P. (2019). Perceptual Vision Training in Non-Sport-Specific Context: Effect on Performance Skills and Cognition in Young Females. Scientific Reports, 9, Article No. 18671.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55252-1
[36]  Formenti, D., Rossi, A., Bongiovanni, T., Campa, F., Cavaggioni, L., Alberti, G., Longo, S., & Trecroci, A. (2021). Effects of Non-Sport-Specific versus Sport-Specific Training on Physical Performance and Perceptual Response in Young Football Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, Article 1962.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041962
[37]  Gonaus, C., Müller, E., Stöggl, T., & Birklbauer, J. (2023). Determining the Effect of One Decade on Fitness of Elite Austrian Youth Soccer Players Using Propensity Score Matching. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 5, Article 1186199.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2023.1186199
[38]  Gonçalves, B., Folgado, H., Coutinho, D., Marcelino, R., Wong, D., Leite, N., & Sampaio, J. (2018). Changes in Effective Playing Space When Considering Sub-Groups of 3 to 10 Players in Professional Soccer Matches. Journal of Human Kinetics, 62, 145-155.
https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0166
[39]  Greier, K., Drenowatz, C., Riechelmann, H., Ruedl, G., Kirschner, W., & Greier, C. (2020). Longitudinal Association of Motor Development and Body Weight in Elementary School Children—A 4-Year Observational Study. Advances in Physical Education, 10, 364-377.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2020.104030
[40]  Hacques, G., Komar, J., Dicks, M., & Seifert, L. (2021). Exploring to Learn and Learning to Explore. Psychological Research, 85, 1367-1379.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-020-01352-x
[41]  Handford, C., Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Button, C. (1997). Skill Acquisition in Sport: Some Applications of an Evolving Practice Ecology. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 621-640.
https://doi.org/10.1080/026404197367056
[42]  Hulteen, R. M., Morgan, P. J., Barnett, L. M., Stodden, D. F., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity across the Lifespan. Sports Medicine, 48, 1533-1540.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-0892-6
[43]  Invernizzi, P. L., Signorini, G., Colella, D., Raiola, G., Bosio, A., & Scurati, R. (2020). Assessing Rolling Abilities in Primary School Children: Physical Education Specialists vs. Generalists. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, Article 8803.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238803
[44]  Koklu, Y., Asci, A., Kocak, F. U., Alemdaroglu, U., & Dundar, U. (2011). Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Different Small-Sided and Conditioned Games in Elite Young Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25, 1522-1528.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e06ee1
[45]  Launder, A. G., & Pilz, W. (2012). Play Practice: The Games Approach to Teaching and Coaching Sport (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.
[46]  Lindenberger, U., Wenger, E., & Lövdén, M. (2017). Towards a Stronger Science of Human Plasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 18, 261-262.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.44
[47]  Lloyd, M., Saunders, T. J., Bremer, E., & Tremblay, M. S. (2014). Long-Term Importance of Fundamental Motor Skills: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ, 31, 67-78.
https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2013-0048
[48]  Lloyd, R. S., Oliver, J. L., Faigenbaum, A. D., Howard, R., De Ste Croix, M. B., Williams, C. A., Best, T. M., Alvar, B. A., Micheli, L. J., Thomas, D. P., Hatfield, D. L., Cronin, J. B., & Myer, G. D. (2015). Long-Term Athletic Development—Part 1: A Pathway for All Youth. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29, 1439-1450.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000756
[49]  Mačak, D., Popović, B., Babić, N., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Madić, D. M., & Trajković, N. (2022). The Effects of Daily Physical Activity Intervention on Physical Fitness in Preschool Children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 40, 146-155.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1978250
[50]  Martins, D. A., Gonçalves, S., Varanda, B. S., Margarida, A., Da Eira, A. J., & Correia, N. M. (2016). Manipulating the Number of Players and Targets in Team Sports. Small-Sided and Conditioned Games during Physical Education Classes. Revista de Psicologia del Deporte, 25, 169-177.
[51]  Mesquita, I., Farias, C., & Hastie, P. (2012). The Impact of a Hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model Soccer Unit on Students’ Decision Making, Skill Execution and Overall Game Performance. European Physical Education Review, 18, 205-219.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X12440027
[52]  Moliner-Urdiales, D., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., Jiménez-Pavón, D., Vicente-Rodriguez, G., Rey-López, J. P., Martínez-Gómez, D., Casajús, J. A., Mesana, M. I., Marcos, A., Noriega-Borge, M. J., Sjöström, M., Castillo, M. J., Moreno, L. A., & AVENA and HELENA Study Groups (2010). Secular Trends in Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish Adolescents: The AVENA and HELENA Studies. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, 584-588.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.03.004
[53]  Monacis, D., Trecroci, A., Invernizzi, P. L., & Colella, D. (2022). Can Enjoyment and Physical Self-Perception Mediate the Relationship between BMI and Levels of Physical Activity? Preliminary Results from the Regional Observatory of Motor Development in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, Article 12567.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912567
[54]  Orth, D., Van der Kamp, J., Memmert, D., & Savelsbergh, G. J. P. (2017). Creative Motor Actions as Emerging from Movement Variability. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1903.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01903
[55]  Passos, P., Araújo, D., & Davids, K. (2013). Self-Organization Processes in Field-Invasion Team Sports: Implications for Leadership. Sports Medicine, 43, 1-7.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-012-0001-1
[56]  Pesce, C., Croce, R., Ben-Soussan, T. D., Vazou, S., McCullick, B., Tomporowski, P. D., & Horvat, M. (2019). Variability of Practice as an Interface between Motor and Cognitive Development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 133-152.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1223421
[57]  Pinder, R. A., Davids, K., Renshaw, I., & Araújo, D. (2011). Representative Learning Design and Functionality of Research and Practice in Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 146-155.
https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.33.1.146
[58]  Power, J. D., & Schlaggar, B. L. (2017). Neural Plasticity across the Lifespan. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology, 6, e216.
https://doi.org/10.1002/wdev.216
[59]  Práxedes, A., Moreno, A., Gil-Arias, A., Claver, F., & Del Villar, F. (2018). The Effect of Small-Sided Games with Different Levels of Opposition on the Tactical Behaviour of Young Footballers with Different Levels of Sport Expertise. PLOS ONE, 13, e0190157.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190157
[60]  Práxedes, A., Moreno, A., Sevil, J., García-González, L., & Del Villar, F. (2016). A Preliminary Study of the Effects of a Comprehensive Teaching Program, Based on Questioning, to Improve Tactical Actions in Young Footballers. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 122, 742-756.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512516649716
[61]  Prieske, B., Withagen, R., Smith, J., & Zaal, F. T. J. M. (2015). Affordances in A Simple Playscape: Are Children Attracted to Challenging Affordances? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 101-111.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.11.011
[62]  Ranganathan, R., Lee, M. H., & Newell, K. M. (2020). Repetition without Repetition: Challenges in Understanding Behavioral Flexibility in Motor Skill. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 2018.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02018
[63]  Renshaw, I., Araújo, D., Button, C., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., & Moy B. (2015). Why the Constraints-Led Approach Is Not Teaching Games for Understanding: A Clarification. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 5, 459-480.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2015.1095870
[64]  Renshaw, I., Davids, K., Araújo, D., Lucas, A., Roberts, W. M., Newcombe, D. J., & Franks, B. (2019). Evaluating Weaknesses of “Perceptual-Cognitive Training” and “Brain Training” Methods in Sport: An Ecological Dynamics Critique. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article 2468.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02468
[65]  Ribeiro, J., Davids, K., Araújo, D., Guilherme, J., Silva, P., & Garganta, J. (2019). Exploiting Bi-Directional Self-Organizing Tendencies in Team Sports: The Role of the Game Model and Tactical Principles of Play. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 2213.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02213
[66]  Rudd, J. R., Pesce, C., Strafford, B. W., & Davids, K. (2020). Physical Literacy—A Journey of Individual Enrichment: An Ecological Dynamics Rationale for Enhancing Performance and Physical Activity in All. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 1904.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01904
[67]  Salvy, S. J., De La Haye, K., Bowker, J. C., & Hermans, R. C. (2012). Influence of Peers and Friends on Children’s and Adolescents’ Eating and Activity Behaviors. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 369-378.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.03.022
[68]  Sannicandro, I. (2019). Small-Sided Games Configuration Pitch and External Motor Load Relationship in Young Soccer Players: Narrative Literature Review. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 1989-1993.
[69]  Sannicandro, I. (2020). Ecological Dynamics Approach in the Youth Soccer: A Short Narrative Review. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15, S1133-S1139.
https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.15.Proc4.14
[70]  Sannicandro, I. (2022a). From Traditional Approach to Ecological Dynamics Approach with the Italian Young Soccer Players. Advances in Physical Education, 12, 201-216.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2022.123016
[71]  Sannicandro, I. (2022b). Specializzazione precoce e rischio di infortunio. Cleup.
[72]  Sannicandro, I., & Raiola, G. (2021). Game Based and Multilateral Approach in Youth Soccer Training: A Choice So That Health and Sporting Targets Can Coexist. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 61, 1314-1315.
https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12247-9
[73]  Savelsbergh, G. J. P., & Wormhoudt, R. (2019). Creating Adaptive Athletes: The Athletic Skills Model for Enhancing Physical Literacy as a Foundation for Expertise. Movement & Sport Sciences—Science & Motricité, 24, 125-134.
[74]  Seifert, L., Araújo, D., Komar, J., & Davids, K. (2017). Understanding Constraints on Sport Performance from the Complexity Sciences Paradigm: An Ecological Dynamics Framework. Human Movement Science, 56, 178-180.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.05.001
[75]  Seifert, L., Papet, V., Strafford, B. W., Coughlan, E. K., & Davids, K. (2019). Skill Transfer, Expertise and Talent Development: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective. Movement & Sport Sciences—Science & Motricité, 25, 178-182.
[76]  Sgrò, F., & Lipoma, M. (2019). Riflessioni sull’utilizzo dei Tactical Games Model nella scuola primaria. Formazione & Insegnamento, XVII, 193-205.
[77]  Silva, P., Travassos, B., Vilar, L., Aguiar, P., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Garganta, J. (2014). Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams. PLOS ONE, 9, e107112.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107112
[78]  Stodden, D., Lakes, K. D., Côté, J.., Aadland, E., Benzing, V., Brian, A., Draper, C. E., Ekkekakis, P., Fumagalli, G., Laukkanen, A., Mavilidi, M. F., Mazzoli, E., Neville, R. D., Niemistö, D., Rudd, J., Sääkslahti, A., Schmidt, M., Tomporowski, P. D., Tortella, P., Vazou, S., & Pesce, C. (2021). Exploration: An Overarching Focus for Holistic Development. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior, 15, 301-320.
https://doi.org/10.20338/bjmb.v15i5.254
[79]  Stuhr, C., Hughes, C. M. L., & Stöckel, T. (2018). Task-Specific and Variability-Driven Activation of Cognitive Control Processes during Motor Performance. Scientific Reports, 8, Article No. 10811.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29007-3
[80]  Tan, S., Wright, S., McNeill, M., Fry, J., & Tan, C. (2002). Implementing the Games Concept Approach in Singapore Schools: A Preliminary Report. REACT, No. 1, 77-84.
[81]  Thorpe, R. (2005). Rod Thorpe on Teaching Games for Understanding. In L. Kidman (Ed.), Athlete-Centred Coaching: Developing Inspired and Inspiring People (pp. 229-243). Innovative Print Communication Ltd.
[82]  Tortella, P., Haga, M., Lorås, H., Fumagalli, G. F., & Sigmundsson, H. (2022). Effects of Free Play and Partly Structured Playground Activity on Motor Competence in Preschool Children: A Pragmatic Comparison Trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, Article 7652.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137652
[83]  Travlos, A. K. (2010). Specificity and Variability of Practice, and Contextual Interference in Acquisition and Transfer of an Underhand Volleyball Serve. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110, 298-312.
https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.298-312
[84]  Weisberg, D. S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2013). Guided Play: Where Curricular Goals Meet a Playful Pedagogy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 104-112.
https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12015
[85]  Withagen, R., Araújo, D., & De Poel, H. J. (2017). Inviting Affordances and Agency. New Ideas in Psychology, 45, 11-18.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2016.12.002
[86]  Woods, C. T., McKeown, I., O’Sullivan, M., Robertson, S., & Davids, K. (2020a). Theory to Practice: Performance Preparation Models in Contemporary High-Level Sport Guided by an Ecological Dynamics Framework. Sports Medicine-Open, 6, Article No. 36.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-020-00268-5
[87]  Woods, C. T., McKeown, I., Rothwell, M., Araújo, D., Robertson, S., & Davids, K. (2020b). Sport Practitioners as Sport Ecology Designers: How Ecological Dynamics Has Progressively Changed Perceptions of Skill “Acquisition” in the Sporting Habitat. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 654.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00654
[88]  World Health Organization (2010). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. WHO Press.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413