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根瘤菌与植物共生的研究进展
Advances in Research on Rhizobium and Plant Symbiosis

DOI: 10.12677/ije.2024.132018, PP. 134-412

Keywords: 植物根系–微生物,根瘤菌共生,信号通路
Plant Roots-Microorganisms
, Rhizobium Symbiosis, Signaling Pathway

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Abstract:

植物的根系与其微共生体是一对亲密的盟友。许多植物物种会与各种微生物联系并产生相互作用,这种作用通常对双方是有利的。这些互利共生关系的一个共同特征是微生物能够从环境中获取限制植物生长的营养物质,并与植物交换这些营养物质,以获得植物光合作用产生的碳源。目前研究得最多的是豆科植物与固氮根瘤菌之间的共生关系,以及植物与丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)之间的共生关系。通过正向遗传学和反向遗传学方法,目前在植物根系与微生物共生关系方面发现了许多相关基因,这些发现有助于我们进一步对共生关系相关机制的理解。本文以根瘤菌共生为例,简要回顾了这种共生关系的一些研究成果,以期对植物与微生物的共生关系有更深入的理解,并为育种过程中提高共生固氮有效性的研究提供一定的思路。
Plant roots and its microsymbiote are intimate allies. Many plant species are associated with various microorganisms, and usually form mutually beneficial relationships. A common feature of these mutualistic symbiosis relationships is the ability of microorganisms to take nutrients from the environment that limit plant growth and to exchange these nutrients with plants to obtain carbon sources produced by plant photosynthesis. At present, the most studied symbiotic relationships are between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobium, and between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Through forward genetics and reverse genetics, many genes related to the symbiosis between plant roots and microorganisms have been discovered, and these findings contribute to our further understanding of the related mechanisms of symbiosis. Taking rhizobia symbiosis as an example, this paper briefly reviewed some research results of this symbiosis relationship, in order to have a deeper understanding of the symbiotic relationship between plants and microorganisms, and provide certain ideas for improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the breeding process.

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