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Significance of Primary Treatment Selection in the Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Constructed Wetlands (CWs)

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.165018, PP. 309-327

Keywords: Constructed Wetlands (CW), Substrates for Wetlands, Vertical Flow System, Primary Treatment, Treatment Efficacy

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Abstract:

This research explores strategies to enhance the efficiency of secondary treatment in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (CW) in Montenegro. The focus is on selecting appropriate primary treatment methods alongside three distinct substrate types to improve wastewater treatment efficacy. The study examines the combination of two primary treatments with different substrate types in constructed wetlands (CW1, CW2, and CW3). The primary treatments include the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Podgorica, involving coarse material removal through screens, inert material separation in aerated sand traps, and sediment and suspended matter removal in primary sedimentation tanks. The Extreme Separator (ExSep) was employed to evaluate its efficacy as a primary treatment method. The research demonstrates that the efficiency of CW can be significantly enhanced by selecting suitable primary treatment methods and substrates in Podgorica’s conditions. The most promising results were achieved by combining ExSep as a primary treatment with secondary treatment in CW-3. The removal efficiencies after CW3 for COD, BOD, and TSS exceeded 89%, 93%, and 91%, respectively. The outcomes underscore the significance of primary treatment in mitigating pollutant loads before discharge into the constructed wetlands, emphasizing potential areas for further optimization in wastewater treatment practices to enhance environmental sustainability and water quality management.

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