All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Significance of Primary Treatment Selection in the Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment in Constructed Wetlands (CWs)

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.165018, PP. 309-327

Keywords: Constructed Wetlands (CW), Substrates for Wetlands, Vertical Flow System, Primary Treatment, Treatment Efficacy

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


This research explores strategies to enhance the efficiency of secondary treatment in Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands (CW) in Montenegro. The focus is on selecting appropriate primary treatment methods alongside three distinct substrate types to improve wastewater treatment efficacy. The study examines the combination of two primary treatments with different substrate types in constructed wetlands (CW1, CW2, and CW3). The primary treatments include the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Podgorica, involving coarse material removal through screens, inert material separation in aerated sand traps, and sediment and suspended matter removal in primary sedimentation tanks. The Extreme Separator (ExSep) was employed to evaluate its efficacy as a primary treatment method. The research demonstrates that the efficiency of CW can be significantly enhanced by selecting suitable primary treatment methods and substrates in Podgorica’s conditions. The most promising results were achieved by combining ExSep as a primary treatment with secondary treatment in CW-3. The removal efficiencies after CW3 for COD, BOD, and TSS exceeded 89%, 93%, and 91%, respectively. The outcomes underscore the significance of primary treatment in mitigating pollutant loads before discharge into the constructed wetlands, emphasizing potential areas for further optimization in wastewater treatment practices to enhance environmental sustainability and water quality management.


[1]  Hammer, D.A. and Bastian, R.K. (1989) Wetland Ecosystems: Natural Water Purifiers? In: Hammer, D.A., Ed., Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, 5-20.
[2]  Shelef, O., Gross, A. and Rachmilevitch, S. (2013) Role of Plants in a Constructed Wetland: Current and New Perspectives. Water, 5, 405-419.
[3]  Didanović, S. and Sekulić, G. (2011) Izgradnja biljnih sistema za prečišćavanje otpadnih voda u Crnoj Gori sa aspekta efikasnosti i ekonomske isplativosti. Zaštita Materijala, 52, 285-290.
[4]  Didanović, S. and Sekulić, G. (2012) Biljke u procesu prečišćavanja otpadnih voda u Crnoj Gori. Zaštita Materijala, 53, 137-142.
[5]  EC (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy.
[6]  Vrhovšek, D. (2015) Ecoremediation Strategy for Montenegro.
[7]  Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism of Montenegro (2016) The 2030 National Sustainable Development Strategy.
[8]  Official Gazette of Montenegro (2017) Law on Municipal Wastewater Management.
[9]  Official Gazette of Montenegro (2019) Law on Waters.
[10]  Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism of Montenegro (2019) The Municipal Wastewater Management Plan for Montenegro (2020-2035).
[11]  Tušar, B. (2009) Pročišćavanje otpadnih voda, Zagreb. Prečišćavanje u Prirodnim Uvjetima, 5, 181-204.
[12]  Vrhovšek, D. and Korže, V.A. (2007) Ekoremediacije. Maribor in Ljubljana.
[13]  Yimazal, J. (2008) Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: A Review.
[14]  Vidali, M. (2001) Bioremediation. An Overview. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 73, 1163-1172.
[15]  Tušar, B. (2009) Pročišćavanje otpadnih voda, Zagreb. Otpadne vode i sistemi od_vodnje, 2, 51-69.
[16]  Tušar, B. (2004) Ispuštanje i pročišćavanje otpadne vode, Zagreb.
[17]  United States Envoronmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2000) Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Waste Waters.
[18]  United Nations Human Settlements Programme Copyright © United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2008) Constructed Wetlands Manual.
[19]  Seabloom, R.W., Bounds, T.R. and Loudon, T.L. (2004) University Curriculum Development for Decentralized Wastewater Management. Septic Tank. NDWRCDP Report.
[20]  Malus, D. and Vouk, D. (2012) Priručnik za učinkovitu primjenu biljnih uređaja za prečišćavanje sanitarnih otpadnih voda. CroRIS-CROSBI, Zagreb.
[21]  Sonune, A. and Ghate, R. (2004) Developments in Wastewater Treatment Methods. Desalination, 167, 55-63.
[22]  Jahić, M.B. (2011) Prečišćavanje zagađenih voda, GRAFIČAR Bihać.
[23]  European Union (1991) Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 Concerning Urban Waste-Water Treatment DIRECTIVE-91/271-EN-EUR-Lex.
[24]  Kirjanova, A., Rimeika, M. and Dauknys, R. (2011) The Analysis of Septic Tank Performance in Regard to Suspended Solids and Organic Matter Removal/Septiko veikimo šalinant skendinčiąsias ir organines medžiagas analizė. Mokslas-Lietuvos ateitis/Science-Future of Lithuania, 3, 112-117.
[25]  Liolios, K.A., Moutsopoulos, K.N. and Tsihrintzis, V.A. (2016) Modelling Alternative Feeding Techniques in HSF Constructed Wetlands, Environmental Processes, 3, S47-S63.
[26]  Tsihrintzis, V.A. (2017) The Use of Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands in Wastewater Treatment. Water Resources Management, 31, 3245-3270.
[27]  Herrera-Melián, J.A., Guedes-Alonso, R., Tite-Lezcano, J.C., Santiago, D.E., Ranieri, E. and Alonso-Bilbao, I. (2023) The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Full-Scale Constructed Wetland System. Sustainability, 15, Article 4310.
[28]  Sharma, P.K., Minakshi, D., Rani, A. and Malaviya, P. (2018) Treatment Efficiency of Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland Systems Operated under Different Recirculation Rates. Ecological Engineering, 120, 474-480.
[29]  Thalla, A.K., Devatha, C.P., Anagh, K. and Sony, E. (2019) Performance Evaluation of Horizontal and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands as Tertiary Treatment Option for Secondary Effluents. Applied Water Science, 9, 1-9.
[30]  Gikas, G.D., Papaevangelou, V.A., Tsihrintzis, V.A., Antonopoulou, M. and Konstantinou, I.K. (2021) Removal of Emerging Pollutants in Horizontal Subsurface Flow and Vertical Flow Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands. Processes, 9, Article 2200.
[31]  Saeed, T. and Hossain, N. (2021) Organics and Nutrients Removal in Vertical Flow Wetlands: Loading Fluctuation and Alternative Media. Environmental Technology, 42, 1104-1118.
[32]  Herrera-Melián, J.A., Guedes-Alonso, R., Tite-Lezcano, J.C., Santiago, D.E., Ranieri, E. and Alonso-Bilbao, I. (2023) The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Full-Scale Constructed Wetland System. Sustainability, 15, Article 4310.
[33]  Ávila, C., Nivala, J., Olsson, L., Kassa, K., Headley, T., Mueller, R.A., García, J., et al. (2014) Emerging Organic Contaminants in Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Influence of Media Size, Loading Frequency and Use of Active Aeration. Science of the Total Environment, 494, 211-217.
[34]  Pascual, A., De La Varga, D., Arias, C.A., Van Oirschot, D., Kilian, R., Álvarez, J.A. and Soto, M. (2017) Hydrolytic Anaerobic Reactor and Aerated Constructed Wetland Systems for Municipal Wastewater Treatment—HIGHWET Project. Environmental Technology, 38, 209-219.
[35]  Pedescoll, A., Corzo, A., Álvarez, E., García, J. and Puigagut, J. (2011) The Effect of Primary Treatment and Flow Regime on Clogging Development in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: An Experimental Evaluation. Water Research, 45, 3579-3589.
[36]  Pedescoll, A., Corzo, A., Álvarez, E., Puigagut, J. and García, J. (2011) Contaminant Removal Efficiency Depending on Primary Treatment and Operational Strategy in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Treatment Wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 37, 372-380.
[37]  Obeidat, N., Shatanawi, K., Kassab, G. and Halalsheh, M. (2024) Performance of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment System Employing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland. Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 9, Article 100695.
[38]  Serban, B. (2011) Wastewater Treatment: Extreme Separation Reduces Space Requirements. Filtration & Separation, 48, 36-38.
[39]  Fichtner Water & Transportation GmbH (2017) Feasibility Study for the Construction of a Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Extension of the Sewer Network in Podgorica, Feasibility Study Report I.
[40]  Franjo, Č. (1990) Voda za piće—Standardne metode za ispitivanje higijenske isprav_nosti. Beograd.
[41]  Lurie, J.J. (1984) Analitičeskaja Chimia promyšlennych stočnych Vod (Analytische Chemie der Betriebs-und Abwässer). Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica, 14, 526.
[42]  AWWA (1975) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 14th Edition, American Water Works Association, Washington DC.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413