All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles

Psychology  2024 

Testing Cross-Lagged Associations between Conditional Parental Regard and Impostorism among Students from Elementary to Secondary School

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2024.154031, PP. 492-513

Keywords: Conditional Parental Regard, Impostorism, Adolescence, Longitudinal Study

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the direction of the relationship between the perception of parental conditional support and the feeling of imposture. 504 students (249 girls) aged 10-11 at the start of the study answered questionnaires on their perception of conditional parental support and their feeling of imposture over a period of five consecutive years. Using structural equation modeling, the results of cross-lagged analyzes with overlapping stability paths of each variable showed that the model where the perception of conditional support predicted the presence of the feeling of imposture the following year was the most parsimonious and the one that also best fit the data. There was no evidence for the reverse: impostorism never predicted changes in perception of conditional parental regard. The discussion focuses on the mechanisms likely involved in children internalization of parental expectations as standards that lead them to feel like an impostor. The negative impact of imposorism on the well-being and future of children increases the importance of making parents aware of the avoidance of practices leading their child to perceive that their love and acceptance are based on their accomplishments rather than on their personal qualities.


[1]  Adachi, P., & Willoughby, T. (2015). Interpreting Effect Sizes When Controlling for Stability Effects in Longitudinal Autoregressive Models: Implications for Psychological Science. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 116-128.
[2]  Al Lawati, A., Al Wahaibi, A., Al Kharusi, F., Fai Chan, M., & Al Sinawi, H. (2023). Investigating Impostorism among Undergraduate Medical Students at Sultan Qaboos University: A Questionnaire-Based Study. Cureus, 15, e45752.
[3]  Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing Data. SAGE Publications, Inc.
[4]  Assor, A., & Tal, K. (2012). When Parents’ Affection Depends on Child’s Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 249-260.
[5]  Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The Emotional Costs of Parents’ Conditional Regard: A Self-Determination Theory Analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.
[6]  Auerbach, R. P., Bigda-Peyton, J. S., Eberhart, N. K., Webb, C. A., & Ho, M. H. R. (2011). Conceptualizing the Prospective Relationship between Social Support, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 475-487.
[7]  Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. W.H. Freeman & Company.
[8]  Barr-Walker, J., Bass, M. B., Werner, D. A., & Kellermeyer, L. (2019). Measuring Impostor Phenomenon among Health Sciences Librarians. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 107, 323-332.
[9]  Bouffard, T., Chayer, M. H., & Sarrat-Vézina, É. (2011). Validation of the Impostorism Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43, 13-19.
[10]  Bouffard, T., Marquis-Trudeau, A., Bonneville-Roussy, A., Vezeau, C., & Pansu, P. (2023). Developmental Trajectories of Conditional Parental Regard and Long-Term Association with Students’ Academic Functioning. Frontiers in Education, 8, Article ID: 1036577.
[11]  Bravata, D. M., Watts, S. A., Keefer, A. L., Madhusudhan, D. K., Taylor, K. T., Clark, D. M., Nelson, R. S., Cokley, K. O., & Hagg, H. K. (2020). Prevalence, Predictors, and Treatment of Impostor Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 35, 1252-1275.
[12]  Caselman, T. D., Self, P. A., & Self, A. L. (2006). Adolescent Attributes Contributing to the Imposter Phenomenon. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 395-405.
[13]  Chayer, M. H., & Bouffard, T. (2010). Relations between Impostor Feelings and Upward and Downward Identification and Contrast among 10-to 12-Year-Old Students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25, 125-140.
[14]  Chayer, M.-H., Marquis-Trudeau, A., Grenon, É., & Bouffard, T. (2015, May 16). Adolescents’ Impostor Phenomenon: Development and Relation with Parental Characteristics. In The Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association.
[15]  Chen, F. (2007). Sensitivity of Goodness of Fit Indexes to Lack of Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464-504.
[16]  Clance, P. R. (1985). The Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming the Fear That Haunts Your Success. Peachtree Pub Limited.
[17]  Clance, P. R., & Imes, S. A. (1978). The Imposter Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 15, 241-247.
[18]  Clance, P. R., Dingman, D., Reviere, S. L., & Stober, D. R. (1995). Impostor Phenomenon in an Interpersonal/Social Context: Origins and Treatment. Women & Therapy, 16, 79-96.
[19]  Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.
[20]  Cokley, K., Stone, S., Krueger, N., Bailey, M., Garba, R., & Hurst, A. (2018). Self-Esteem as a Mediator of the Link between Perfectionism and the Impostor Phenomenon. Personality and Individual Differences, 135, 292-297.
[21]  Côté, S., & Bouffard, T. (2011). Role of Parental Emotional Support in Illusion of Scholastic Incompetence. European Review of Applied Psychology, 61, 137-145.
[22]  Côté, S., Bouffard, T., & Vezeau, C. (2014). The Mediating Effect of Self-Evaluation Bias of Competence on the Relationship between Parental Emotional Support and Children’s Academic Functioning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 415-434.
[23]  Cozzarelli, C., & Major, B. (1990). Exploring the Validity of the Impostor Phenomenon. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 401-417.
[24]  Cromwell, B. H. (1990). The Imposter Phenomenon in the Classroom: Personality and Cognitive Correlates (Doctoral Dissertation, Old Dominion University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 4264B.
[25]  Curran, T., Hill, A. P., & Williams, L. J. (2017). The Relationships between Parental Conditional Regard and Adolescents’ Self-Critical and Narcissistic Perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 109, 17-22.
[26]  Curran, T., Hill, A. P., Madigan, D. J., & Stornæs, A. V. (2020). A Test of Social Learning and Parent Socialization Perspectives on the Development of Perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 160, 284-296.
[27]  Cusack, C. E., Hughes, J. L., & Nuhu, N. (2013). Connecting Gender and Mental Health to Imposter Phenomenon Feelings. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 18, 74-81.
[28]  Davis-Kean, P. E. (2005). The Influence of Parent Education and Family Income on Child Achievement: The Indirect Role of Parental Expectations and the Home Environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 294-304.
[29]  De Civita, M., Pagani, L., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). The Role of Maternal Educational Aspirations in Mediating the Risk of Income Source on Academic Failure in Children from Persistently Poor Families. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 749-769.
[30]  Desjardins, T. L., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2011). Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 531-544.
[31]  Dyer, W. J., Day, R. D., & Harper, J. M. (2014). Father Involvement: Identifying and Predicting Family Members’ Shared and Unique Perceptions. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 516-528.
[32]  Englund, M. M., Luckner, A. E., Whaley, G. J. L., & Egeland, B. (2004). Children’s Achievement in Early Elementary School: Longitudinal Effects of Parental Involvement, Expectations, and Quality of Assistance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 723-730.
[33]  Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2005). First Grade and Educational Attainment by Age 22: A New Story. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1458-1502.
[34]  Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and Society. W. W. Norton.
[35]  Feenstra, S., Begeny, C. T., Ryan, M. K., Rink, F. A., Stoker, J. I., & Jordan, J. (2020). Contextualizing the Impostor “Syndrome”. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article ID: 575024.
[36]  Ferrari, J. R. (2005). Impostor Tendencies and Academic Dishonesty: Do They Cheat Their Way to Success? Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 3, 11-18.
[37]  Fruhan, G. A. (2002). Understanding Feelings of Fraudulence in the Early Professional Lives of Women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 63, 2581.
[38]  Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 37-46.
[39]  Gittins, C. B., & Hunt, C. (2019). Parental Behavioural Control in Adolescence: How Does It Affect Self-Esteem and Self-Criticism? Journal of Adolescence, 73, 26-35.
[40]  Grays, L. A. (1992). Personality, Social, Familial, and Achievement Correlates of the Impostor Phenomenon. Doctoral Dissertation, Georgia State University.
[41]  Grenon, É., & Bouffard, T. (2016). Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship between Negative Bias of Self-Evaluation and Impostorism among Students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 42, 61-85.
[42]  Grenon, É., Bouffard, T., & Vezeau, C. (2019). Familial and Personal Characteristics Profiles Predict Bias in Academic Competence and Impostorism Self-Evaluations. Self & Identity, 19, 784-803.
[43]  Harter, S. (1999). The Construction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. Guilford Press.
[44]  Harter, S. (2012). The Construction of the Self: Developmental and Sociocultural Foundations (2nd éd.). Guilford Press.
[45]  Harter, S., & Marold, D. B. (1994). Psychosocial Risk Factors Contributing to Adolescent Suicidal Ideation. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1994, 71-91.
[46]  Harter, S., & Robinson, N. (1988). The Function and Source of Different Types of Social Support and Their Impact on Global Self-Worth. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Denver.
[47]  Harter, S., Marold, D. B., Whitesell, N. R., & Cobbs, G. (1996). A Model of the Effects of Perceived Parent and Peer Support on Adolescent False Self Behavior. Child Development, 67, 360-374.
[48]  Harvey, J. C., & Katz, C. (1985). If I’m So Successful, Why Do I Feel like a Fake? The Impostor Phenomenon. St. Martin’s Press.
[49]  Hascoët, M., Pansu, P., Bouffard, T., & Leroy, N. (2018). The Harmful Aspect of Teacher Conditional Support on Students’ Self-Perception of School Competence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 33, 615-628.
[50]  Holden, C. L., Wright, L. E., Herring, A. M., & Sims, P. L. (2021). Imposter Syndrome among First-and Continuing-Generation College Students: The Roles of Perfectionism and Stress. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, Practice, 25, 726-740.
[51]  Howes, C. (2000). Social-Emotional Classroom Climate in Childcare, Teacher-Child Relationships and Children’s Second-Grade Peer Relations. Social Development, 9, 191-204.
[52]  Hu, K. S., Chibnall, J. T., & Slavin, S. J. (2019). Maladaptive Perfectionism, Impostorism, and Cognitive Distortions: Threats to the Mental Health of Pre-Clinical Medical Students. Academic Psychiatry, 43, 381-385.
[53]  Kaplan, D. S., Liu, X., & Kaplan, H. B. (2001). Influence of Parents’ Self-Feelings and Expectations on Children’s Academic Performance. The Journal of Educational Research, 94, 360-370.
[54]  Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What Parents Know, How They Know It, and Several Forms of Adolescent Adjustment: Further Support for a Reinterpretation of Monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 366-380.
[55]  King, J. E., & Cooley, E. L. (1995). Achievement Orientation and the Impostor Phenomenon among College Students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 304-312.
[56]  Kollat, S. H. (2007). The Role of Conditional Parental Regard and Excessively Contingent Self-Esteem in Children’s Peer Relationships. Doctoral Thesis, Pennsylvania State University.
[57]  Kolligian Jr., J., & Sternberg, R. J. (1991). Perceived Fraudulence in Young Adults: Is There an “Imposter Syndrome”? Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 308-326.
[58]  Laird, R. D., & De Los Reyes, A. (2013). Testing Informant Discrepancies as Predictors of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: Why Difference Scores Cannot Tell You What You Want to Know and How Polynomial Regression May. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 1-14.
[59]  Laird, R. D., Marrero, M. D., & Sentse, M. (2010). Revisiting Parental Monitoring: Evidence That Parental Solicitation Can Be Effective When Needed Most. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1431-1441.
[60]  Langford, J., & Clance, P. R. (1993). The Imposter Phenomenon: Recent Research Findings Regarding Dynamics, Personality and Family Patterns and Their Implications for Treatment. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 30, 495-501.
[61]  Leary, M. R., Patton, K. M., Orlando, A. E., & Wagoner Funk, W. (2000). The Impostor Phenomenon: Self-Perceptions, Reflected Appraisals, and Interpersonal Strategies. Journal of Personality, 68, 725-756.
[62]  Li, S., Hughes, J. L., & Thu, S. M. (2014). The Links between Parenting Styles and Imposter Phenomenon. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19, 50-57.
[63]  Macek, P., & Jezek, S. (2007). Adolescents’ Assessments of Parents and Peers: Relationships to Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy. Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 51, 26-36.
[64]  Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K.-T. (1996). Assessing Goodness of Fit: Is Parsimony Always Desirable? Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 364-390.
[65]  McGregor, L. N., Gee, D. E., & Posey, K. E. (2008). I Feel like a Fraud and It Depresses Me: The Relation between the Imposter Phenomenon and Depression. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36, 43-48.
[66]  Mortimer, J. T., & Lee, M. (2021). How Do Grandparents’ and Parents’ Educational Attainments Influence Parents’ Educational Expectations for Children? Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 13, 551-554.
[67]  Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. (2017). Mplus User’s Guide: Statistical Analysis with Latent Variables, User’s Guide. Muthén & Muthén.
[68]  Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing Developmental Trajectories: A Semiparametric, Group-Based Approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139-157.
[69]  Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Analyzing Developmental Trajectories of Distinct but Related Behaviors: A Group-Based Method. Psychological Methods, 6, 18-34.
[70]  Neureiter, M., & Traut-Mattausch, E. (2016). An Inner Barrier to Career Development: Preconditions of the Impostor Phenomenon and Consequences for Career Development. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article No. 48.
[71]  Otterpohl, N., Lazar, R., & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2019). The Dark Side of Perceived Positive Regard: When Parents’ Well-Intended Motivation Strategies Increase Students’ Test Anxiety. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56, 79-90.
[72]  Otterpohl, N., Steffgen, S. T., Stiensmeier-Pelster, J., Brenning, K., & Soenens, B. (2020). The Intergenerational Continuity of Parental Conditional Regard and Its Role in Mothers’ and Adolescents’ Contingent Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms. Social Development, 29, 143-158.
[73]  Pannhausen, S., Klug, K., & Rohrmann, S. (2020). Never Good Enough: The Relation between the Impostor Phenomenon and Multidimensional Perfectionism. Current Psychology, 41, 888-901.
[74]  Parke, R. D., Dennis, J., Flyr, M. L., Morris, K. L., Leidy, M. S., & Schofield, T. J. (2006). Fathers: Cultural and Ecological Perspectives. In T. Luster, & L. Okagaki (Eds.), Parenting (pp. 119-160). Routledge.
[75]  Parkman, A. (2016). The Imposter Phenomenon in Higher Education: Incidence and Impact. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 16, 51-60.
[76]  Pasch, K. E., Stigler, M. H., Perry, C. L., & Komro, K. A. (2010). Parents’ and Children’s Self-Report of Parenting Factors: How Much Do They Agree and Which Is More Strongly Associated with Early Adolescent Alcohol Use? Health Education Journal, 69, 31-42.
[77]  Peteet, B. J., Brown, C. M., Lige, Q. M., & Lanaway, D. A. (2015). Impostorism Is Associated with Greater Psychological Distress and Lower Self-Esteem for African American Students. Current Psychology, 34, 154-163.
[78]  Peugh, J. L., & Enders, C. K. (2004). Missing Data in Educational Research: A Review of Reporting Practices and Suggestions for Improvement. Review of Educational Research, 74, 525-556.
[79]  Rogers, C. R. (1959). A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and Interpersonal Relationships: As Developed in the Client-Centered Framework (Vol. 3). McGraw-Hill.
[80]  Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The Emotional and Academic Consequences of Parental Conditional Regard: Comparing Conditional Positive Regard, Conditional Negative Regard, and Autonomy Support as Parenting Practices. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1119-1142.
[81]  Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender Differences in the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Student Adjustment during Early Adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly, 23, 496-514.
[82]  Sakulku, J., & Alexander, J. (2011). The Impostor Phenomenon. International Journal of Behavioral Science, 6, 73-92.
[83]  Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., Bauer, A., & Murphy, M. T. (2012). The Association between Over-Parenting, Parent-Child Communication, and Entitlement and Adaptive Traits in Adult Children. Family Relations, 61, 237-252.
[84]  Selig, J. P., & Little, T. D. (2012). Autoregressive and Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis for Longitudinal Data. In B. Laursen, T. D. Little, & N. A. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Developmental Research Methods (pp. 265-278). The Guilford Press.
[85]  Smith, M. M., Sherry, S. B., Gautreau, C. M., Mushquash, A. R., Saklofske, D. H., & Snow, S. L. (2017). The Intergenerational Transmission of Perfectionism: Fathers’ Other-Oriented Perfectionism and Daughters’ Perceived Psychological Control Uniquely Predict Daughters’ Self-Critical and Personal Standards Perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 242-248.
[86]  Somerville, L. H., Jones, R. M., Ruberry, E. J., Dyke, J. P., Glover, G., & Casey, B. J. (2013). The Medial Prefrontal Cortex and the Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotion in Adolescence. Psychological Science, 24, 1554-1562.
[87]  Sonnak, C., & Towell, T. (2001). The Impostor Phenomenon in British University Students: Relationships between Self-Esteem, Mental Health, Parental Rearing Style and Socioeconomic Status. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 863-874.
[88]  Spinath, B., & Steinmayr, R. (2008). Longitudinal Analysis of Intrinsic Motivation and Competence Beliefs: Is There a Relation over Time? Child Development, 79, 1555-1569.
[89]  Thompson, T., Foreman, P., & Martin, F. (2000). Impostor Fears and Perfectionistic Concern over Mistakes. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 629-647.
[90]  Varvil-Weld, L., Turrisi, R., Scaglione, N., Mallett, K. A., & Ray, A. E. (2013). Parents’ and Students’ Reports of Parenting: Which Are More Reliably Associated with College Student Drinking? Addictive Behavior, 38, 1699-1703.
[91]  Vergauwe, J., Wille, B., Feys, M., De Fruyt, F., & Anseel, F. (2015). Fear of Being Exposed: The Trait-Relatedness of the Impostor Phenomenon and Its Relevance in the Work Context. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30, 565-581.
[92]  Wang, J., & Wang, X. (2019). Structural Equation Modeling. Wiley.
[93]  Want, J., & Kleitman, S. (2006). Imposter Phenomenon and Self-Handicapping: Links with Parenting Styles and Self-Confidence. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 961-971.
[94]  Wouters, S., Doumen, S., Germeijs, V., Colpin, H., & Verschueren, K. (2013). Contingencies of Self-Worth in Early Adolescence: The Antecedent Role of Perceived Parenting: Parenting and Contingencies of Self-Worth. Social Development, 22, 242-258.
[95]  Yaffe Y. (2020a). Validation of the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale with Female Hebrew-Speaking Students. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 11.
[96]  Yaffe, Y. (2020b). Does Self-Esteem Mediate the Association between Parenting Styles and Imposter Feelings among Female Education Students? Personality and Individual Differences, 156, Article ID: 109789.
[97]  Yaffe, Y. (2021). Students’ Recollections of Parenting Styles and Impostor Phenomenon: The Mediating Role of Social Anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 172, Article ID: 110598.
[98]  Yaffe, Y. (2023). Maternal and Paternal Authoritarian Parenting and Adolescents’ Impostor Feelings: The Mediating Role of Parental Psychological Control and the Moderating Role of Child’s Gender. Children, 10, 308.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413