All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Assessment of Retention Ponds and Its Impacts on Health of Residents in Mogadishu, Somalia: Mixed Methods

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.164017, PP. 293-307

Keywords: Retention, Ponds, Contamination, Water Quality Index, Waterborne Diseases, Mogadishu, Somalia

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of retention ponds on the environment and population health by analyzing water samples from various ponds in Mogadishu, to determine the prevalence of waterborne illnesses that occur during the rainy season in Mogadishu, and to find out what experts thought about the effects of retention ponds on the environment as well as population health in Mogadishu. Methods: Mixed designs were used in the study. The first design is an exploratory study where samples are taken from different retention ponds in Mogadishu. The second design involves gathering secondary data from the online FSNAU Dashboard regarding the incidence of rainfall and waterborne illnesses including malaria and cholera. Additionally, a cross-sectional survey of expert opinions using questionnaires was the third design. The 10 water samples were taken from retention ponds in Mogadishu as part of the sample size. Data on the fourth month was also gathered using the FNSAU dashboard, and seventy sample sizes were used for the expert self-administered questionnaire for the third design. Excel was used for data analysis in the initial design. While BMI SPSS versions 22 were used to analyze the data from the Self-administered Questionnaire, additional methods were utilized to compute descriptive statistics, such as mean and standard deviation, and to analyze demographic data in a frequency table. Findings: The results show that three samples had unsatisfactory scores (Grade D): Yaqshid (Warshadda Bastada) had a WQI of 80.85, Boondheer (Bondher Pond) had a WQI of 80.64, and Wartanabad (Xamar Jadiid Pond) had a WQI of 80.89. The remaining samples were all rated as fair (grade), which indicates that they ranged from 50 to 75. The months with the largest rainfall already occurred in December, November, and October, when the prevalence of diseases during the rainy season was highest for cholera cases. Although October and December saw a significant number of malaria cases, November did not. Retention ponds’ overall effects on residential environments were evaluated, and the results showed that the standard deviation was 0.802 and the cumulative average mean scores were 4.41 overall. This indicates that the respondents were in agreement that retention ponds in Mogadishu, Somalia, had an effect on residential areas. Recommendation: The study suggested that in order to identify retention pond contamination and create treatment units for its


[1]  Mohamed, A.A., Billa, L. and Jaya, R.P. (2023) Challenges of Post-Conflict Urban Transportation Reconstruction in Mogadishu, Somalia. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 129, Article 103307.
[2]  World Bank (2022) Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) and Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP), Benadir Regional Administration Somalia Urban Resilience Project Phase II.
[3]  United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Enforcement Alert. EPA Enforcement: Preventing Backup of Municipal Sewage into Basements.
[4]  Hughes, J., Cowper-Heays, K., Olesson, E., Bell, R. and Stroombergen, A. (2021) Impacts and Implications of Climate Change on Wastewater Systems: A New Zealand Perspective. Climate Risk Management, 31, Article 100262.
[5]  World Bank Group (2018) Democratic Republic of Congo Systematic Country Diagnostic: Policy Priorities for Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity in a Post-Conflict Country and Fragile State.
[6]  Whelan, P.I. (1998) The Prevention of Mosquito Breeding in Sewage Treatment Facilities. Bulletin of the Mosquito Control Association of Australia, 10, 18-28.
[7]  Kronenwetter-Koepel, T.A., Meece, J.K., Miller, C.A. and Reed, K.D. (2005) Surveillance of Above-and Below-Ground Mosquito Breeding Habitats in a Rural Midwestern Community: Baseline Data for Larvicidal Control Measures against West Nile Virus Vectors. Clinical Medicine & Research, 3, 3-12.
[8]  Ferraguti, M., Martínez-de la Puente, J., Brugueras, S., Millet, J.P., Rius, C., Valsecchi, A., et al. (2023) Spatial Distribution and Temporal Dynamics of Invasive and Native Mosquitoes in a Large Mediterranean City. Science of the Total Environment, 896, Article 165322.
[9]  Sağir, H. and Sahal, M.M. (2022) Effects of Climate Change on Mogadishu and Applicable Policy Priorities. Kent Akademisi, 15, 97-1007.
[10]  Orindi, V.A. and Murray, L.A. (2005) Adapting to Climate Change in East Africa: A Strategic Approach. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
[11]  WHO (2023) EPI Watch Epidemiological Bulletin, Epidemiological Bulletin for Epidemic-Prone Diseases in Somalia for Epidemiological Week 10-11 of 2023 (6-19 March 2023).
[12]  Jeong, H., Broesicke, O.A., Drew, B., Li, D. and Crittenden, J. C. (2016) Life Cycle Assessment of Low Impact Development Technologies Combined with Conventional Centralized Water Systems for the City of Atlanta, Georgia. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 10, Article No. 1.
[13]  Mishra, A., Mukherjee, A. and Tripathi B.D. (2009) Seasonal and Temporal Variations in Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of River Ganga in Varanasi. Current World Environment, 3, 395-402.
[14]  Oram, B. (2014) “Mr. Brian Oram, PG.” Pennsylvania Well Water Testing Private Wellowners Drinking Water Pennsylvania Ground Water Education Program.
[15]  Saiyood, S., Vangnai, A.S., Inthorn, D. and Thiravetyan, P. (2012) Treatment of Total Dissolved Solids from Plastic Industrial Effluent by Halophytic Plants. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 223, 4865-4873.
[16]  Mudavanhu, N., Ndeketeya, A. and Masaya, N. (2014) An Assessment of Phytoremediation Capacity of Eichhronia crassipes and Typha capensis for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids in Plastic Recycling Industry Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology, 8, 86-92.
[17]  Gopolang, O. and Letshwenyo, M. (2018) Performance Evaluation of Waste Stabilisation Ponds. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 10, 1129-1147.
[18]  Imran, H. (2005) Wastewater Monitoring of Pharmaceutical Industry: Treatment and Reuse Options. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 4, 994-1004.
[19]  Menya, E., Wangi, G., Amanyire, F. and Ebangu, B. (2013) Design of Waste Stabilization Ponds for Dairy Processing Plants in Uganda. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 15, 198-207.
[20]  Buňková, L., Buňka, F., Dráb, V., Kráčmar, S. and Kubáň, V. (2012) Effects of NaCl, Lactose and Availability of Oxygen on Tyramine Production by the Enterococcus durans CCDM 53. European Food Research and Technology, 234, 973-979.
[21]  Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit in Somalia (2023) EW-EA Dashboard/ Districts/Mogadishu.
[22]  Omar, M., Félicien, M., Emmanuel, H. and Wilbert, U. (2016) Impact Assessment of Hillside Rainwater Harvesting Ponds on Agriculture Income: Case Study of Ntarama Sector in Rwanda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 844-854.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413