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Assessment of Retention Ponds and Its Impacts on Health of Residents in Mogadishu, Somalia: Mixed Methods

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.164017, PP. 293-307

Keywords: Retention, Ponds, Contamination, Water Quality Index, Waterborne Diseases, Mogadishu, Somalia

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Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of retention ponds on the environment and population health by analyzing water samples from various ponds in Mogadishu, to determine the prevalence of waterborne illnesses that occur during the rainy season in Mogadishu, and to find out what experts thought about the effects of retention ponds on the environment as well as population health in Mogadishu. Methods: Mixed designs were used in the study. The first design is an exploratory study where samples are taken from different retention ponds in Mogadishu. The second design involves gathering secondary data from the online FSNAU Dashboard regarding the incidence of rainfall and waterborne illnesses including malaria and cholera. Additionally, a cross-sectional survey of expert opinions using questionnaires was the third design. The 10 water samples were taken from retention ponds in Mogadishu as part of the sample size. Data on the fourth month was also gathered using the FNSAU dashboard, and seventy sample sizes were used for the expert self-administered questionnaire for the third design. Excel was used for data analysis in the initial design. While BMI SPSS versions 22 were used to analyze the data from the Self-administered Questionnaire, additional methods were utilized to compute descriptive statistics, such as mean and standard deviation, and to analyze demographic data in a frequency table. Findings: The results show that three samples had unsatisfactory scores (Grade D): Yaqshid (Warshadda Bastada) had a WQI of 80.85, Boondheer (Bondher Pond) had a WQI of 80.64, and Wartanabad (Xamar Jadiid Pond) had a WQI of 80.89. The remaining samples were all rated as fair (grade), which indicates that they ranged from 50 to 75. The months with the largest rainfall already occurred in December, November, and October, when the prevalence of diseases during the rainy season was highest for cholera cases. Although October and December saw a significant number of malaria cases, November did not. Retention ponds’ overall effects on residential environments were evaluated, and the results showed that the standard deviation was 0.802 and the cumulative average mean scores were 4.41 overall. This indicates that the respondents were in agreement that retention ponds in Mogadishu, Somalia, had an effect on residential areas. Recommendation: The study suggested that in order to identify retention pond contamination and create treatment units for its

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