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Health  2024 

The Impact of Health Information Technology on Hospital Performance: A Systematic Integrative Literature Review

DOI: 10.4236/health.2024.164021, PP. 257-279

Keywords: Health Information Technology, HIT Functionalities, Hospital Performance Indicators

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Abstract:

Objective: To review, categorise, and synthesise findings from literature on health information technology (HIT) functionalities, HIT use, and the impact of HIT on hospital performance. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic integrative literature review based on a compre-hensive database search. To organise, categorise and synthesise the ex-isting literature, we adopted the affordance actualization theory. To align the literature with our research framework, we used four categories: 1) the functionalities of HIT and how these functionalities are measured; 2) use and immediate outcomes of HIT functionalities; 3) different perfor-mance indicators and how HIT functionalities affect them; and 4) what hospital characteristics influence the outcome of hospital performance. Results: Fifty-two studies were included. We identified four types of HIT. Only ten studies (19.2%) define the use of HIT by explicitly meas-uring the use rate of HIT. We identified five dimensions of hospital per-formance indicators. Every dimension showed mixed results; however, in general, HIT has a positive impact on mortality and patient readmis-sions. We found several hospital characteristics that may affect the rela-tionship between HIT and hospital-level outcomes. Discussion: Further efforts should focus on embedded research on HIT functionalities, use and effects of HIT implementations with more performance indicators and adjusted for hospital characteristics. Conclusion: The proposed framework could help hospitals and researchers make decisions regard-ing the functionalities, use and effects of HIT implementation in hospi-tals. Given our research outcomes, we suggest future research opportuni-ties to improve understanding of how HIT affects hospital performance.


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