All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles

Psychology  2024 

The Validity and Reliability of Social and Psychological Skills (SP-Skills) Module

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2024.153019, PP. 315-328

Keywords: Assertiveness, Psychological Well-Being, Social Skills, University Students, Malaysia

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


This study aims to determine the validity and reliability of the SP-Skills module, which comprises five sub-modules (Introduction, Assertiveness, Social Skills, Psychological Well-Being and Conclusion). Two instruments used for assessment are content validity instrument and reliability module instrument. The SP-Skills module was given to an eight-expert panel to determine the validity of the overall content and the validity based on the module sessions and activities. In order to measure the value of reliability, 45 first-year public university students were selected to evaluate the objectives of each activity in the module. The findings of this study show that the module has high validity with an overall content index of 0.920 and good reliability with Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.958. The results of the study prove that the SP-Skills module has high validity and good reliability. Therefore, this module has great potential as a good module. This module is recommended to be used and tested for its effectiveness. The module is also expected to be a good and effective guide, especially in improving assertiveness, social skills and psychological well-being of university students.


[1]  Ahmad, A. (2013). Kesan Intervensi Psiko-Pendidikan terhadap Tingkah Laku Murid Sekolah Menengah oleh Guru Bimbingan dan Kaunseling. Tesis Doktor Falsafah Yang Tidak Diterbitkan, Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Malaya.
[2]  Ali, A., Amat, S., & Mohd Kari, D. N. P. (2019). Validity and Reliability of the Soft Skills Psychoeducation Intervention Module. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 7, 10-27.
[3]  Auerbach, R. P., Alonso, J., Axinn, W. G., Cuijpers, P., Ebert, D. D., Green, J. G., & Bruffaerts, R. (2016). Mental Disorders among College Students in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Psychological Medicine, 46, 2955-2970.
[4]  Bistamam, M. N. (2006). Kesan Kaunseling Kelompok ke atas Penyesuaian Remaja Berisiko. Tesis Doktor Falsafah, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
[5]  Bond, T., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch Model Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. Routledge.
[6]  Brinkman, W. P. (2009). Design of a Questionnaire Instrument. In Handbook of Mobile Technology Research Methods (pp. 31-57). Nova Publishers.
[7]  Cabrera, G., Daya, H., & Echague, N. (2020). Psychological Well-Being of College Students: Validation of the Personal-Social Responsibility and Wellness Module. Journal of Educational and Human Resource Development, 8, 59-70.
[8]  Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business Research Methods (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
[9]  Del Prette, Z. A. P., & Del Prette, A. (2013). Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette): Characteristics and Studies in Brazil. In F. L. Osorio (Ed.), Social Anxiety Disorders: From Theory to Practice (pp. 47-62). Nova Science Publishers.
[10]  Dikko, M. (2016). Establishing Construct Validity and Reliability: Pilot Testing of a Qualitative Interview Research in Takaful (Islamic Insurance). The Qualitative Report, 21, 521-528.
[11]  Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
[12]  Hertzog, M. (2008). Considerations in Determining Sample Size for Pilot Studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 31, 180-191.
[13]  Hood, B., Jelbert, S., & Santos, L. R. (2021). Benefits of a Psychoeducational Happiness Course on University Student Mental Well-Being both before and during a COVID-19 Lockdown. Health Psychology Open, 8, 1-12.
[14]  Howard, M. C., & Gutworth, M. B. (2020). A Meta-Analysis of Virtual Reality Training Programs for Social Skill Development. Computers & Education, 144, Article ID: 103707.
[15]  Ishak, Z. A. (2016). Kesan modul bimbingan kaunseling kelompok penyesuaian remaja terhadap motivasi, ketegasan, empati, harga diri dan kecerdasan emosi dalam kalangan pelajar salah laku disiplin. Tesis Doktor Falsafah Yang Tidak Diterbitkan, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
[16]  Jusoh, A. J., Abdul Rahman, A. M., Bistamam, M. N., & Mohamed Arip, M. A. S. (2011). Modul Kaunseling Kelompok CTRT: Pendekatan Menangani Permasalahan Disiplin Pelajar. Penerbit Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris.
[17]  Khairani, A. Z., Ahmad, N. S., & Sutatminingsih, R. (2021). Assessing Social-Psychological Functioning between Malaysian and Indonesian Undergraduates: A Rasch Model Analysis. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 14, 714-727.
[18]  Konting, M. M. (2000). Kaedah Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Ed. ke-5. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
[19]  Mahmud, M. I. (2017). Kesan program kerjaya psiko-pendidikan Cognitive Information Processing terhadap ketidakfungsian pemikiran kerjaya dan efikasi kendiri kerjaya pelajar di sebuah universiti awam. Doctoral Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
[20]  Mohamed Arip, M. A. S. (2010). Kesan Kelompok Bimbingan ke atas Konsep Kendiri, Kelangsangan dan Resiliensi di kalangan Remaja. Tesis Doktor Falsafah, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
[21]  Nawawi, R., Madihie, A., Yusoff, S. M., Said, S. N. M., & Sebli, R. S. M. (2016). Development, Validity and Reliability of Counseling Intervention Self-Excellence Module Based on 6 Values PANS Transformation (pp. 1-11). UNIMAS Press.
[22]  Noah, S. M., & Ahmad, J. (2005). Pembinaan Modul: Bagaimana Membina Modul Latihan dan Modul Akademik. Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.
[23]  Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS (5th ed.). McGraw Hill.
[24]  Rathus, S. A. (1973). A 30-Item Schedule for Assessing Assertive Behavior. Behavior Therapy, 4, 398-406.
[25]  Robson, Z., & Simone, A. (2019). Evaluation of a Psychoeducational Intervention in the Development of Social and Communication Skills for Incoming Medical Students at a Bilingual University. Trends in Psychology, 27, 749-762.
[26]  Russell, J. D. (1974). Modular Instruction: A Guide to the Design, Selection, Utilization and Evaluation of Modular Materials. Burgess Publishing Company.
[27]  Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.
[28]  Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
[29]  Shahira, M. N., Hanisshya, H., Lukman, Z. M., Normala, R., Azlini, C., & Kamal, M. Y. (2018). Psychological Well-Being among University Students in Malaysia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 2, 133-137.
[30]  Siang-Ang, C. (2016). Assessment of Social Competence: Exploring the Dimensions of Young Adult Social Competence. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 30, 90-101.
[31]  Sieng, L. W., & Yussof, I. (2017). Comparative Study of Malaysia Human Capital with Selected ASEAN and Developed Countries: A Fuzzy TOPSIS Method. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 11, 11-22.
[32]  Siong, N. U., & Syed Ali, S. K. (2023). Development and Evaluation of New Badminton Module in Physical Education. Journal of Islamic, Social, Economics and Development (JISED), 8, 76-87.
[33]  Tuckman, B.W. (1988). Conducting Educational Research (3rd ed.). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
[34]  Yoke, T. C., & Ngang, T. K. (2017). A Study on Soft Skill Development among Final Year Diploma in Business Studies Students. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 3, 32-50.
[35]  Yusoff, N. R. N., Mahfar, M., & Saud, M. S. (2019). Module Development Models for Developing the Career Readiness-Personality (Cr-P) Module. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 8, 6203-6208.
[36]  Zahir, M. Z. M., Saper, M. N., & Bistamam, M. N. (2019). Kesahan dan kebolehpercayaan modul kelompok bimbingan integrasi REBT-Tazkiyah An-Nafs. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 9, 58-69.
[37]  Zainuddin, A. (2018). Kesan bimbingan kelompok menggunakan modul kesejahteraan diri mualaf (MKDM) terhadap kesejahteraan diri di Selangor. Tesis Doktor Falsafah, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413