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1993年美国密尔沃基市隐孢子虫水污染事件探究
Investigation of Cryptosporidium Water Pollution Incident in Milwaukee, USA in 1993

DOI: 10.12677/ISL.2024.81002, PP. 9-19

Keywords: 水,隐孢子虫,防控
Water
, Cryptosporidium, Prevention and Control

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Abstract:

1993年春美国威斯康星州密尔沃基市暴发的隐孢子虫水污染事件,是美国历史上影响范围最广、危害最严重的一次水传染病事件。涉及人口达160万,其中40.3万人受到不同程度的感染,4400人住院治疗,共造成103人死亡,患者的免疫系统受到极大损伤。该事件迫使密尔沃基市公共卫生部门改进了原有的水过滤系统,政府部门对饮用水处理厂进行大规模的改造并通过了新的法律法规,力求缓和人与水之间的矛盾,以此保证居民的饮用水安全。此外,该事件迫使密尔沃基市政府对饮用水处理厂进行大规模改造,令密尔沃基市及美国其他地区开始通过全流域治理保护水源地,直接推动了美国环保局出台了新的隐孢子虫检测方法,并在《地表水处理条例》的基础上新制定了《加强地表水处理条例》,将隐孢子虫列为优先监控对象,加强监测力度,改善旧有监管体系,扩大对民众自我安全保护意识的宣传,对全美与水相关的法案产生了重要影响。
The outbreak of cryptosporidium water pollution in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the spring of 1993 was the most widespread and harmful waterborne infectious disease event in the history of the United States. Of the 1.6 million people involved, 403,000 were infected to varying degrees, and 4400 were hospitalized, resulting in 103 deaths and severe damage to the immune system. The in-cident forced the Milwaukee Public Health Department to improve its water filtration system, un-dertake extensive renovations to drinking water treatment plants, and pass new laws and regula-tions aimed at easing the conflict between people and water in order to ensure the safety of drink-ing water for residents. In addition, the incident forced the city of Milwaukee to undertake a major renovation of its drinking water treatment plant, led Milwaukee and the rest of the United States to begin protecting water sources through basin-wide treatment, directly prompted the US Environ-mental Protection Agency to introduce cryptosporidium testing methods, and the new Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Act, based on the Surface Water Treatment Act. Prioritizing cryptospor-idium, strengthening surveillance efforts, improving the old regulatory system, and expanding pub-lic awareness of self-protection have had an important impact on water-related legislation across the United States.

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