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Protectivity of Freeze Dried Inactivated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine

DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2024.142003, PP. 21-37

Keywords: Rift Valley Fever, Saponin, Cabopol, Binary Ethylenemine, Serum Neutralization Test

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Abstract:

Background: Vaccinations for animals are crucial for food production, animal welfare, public health, and animal health. They are an affordable way to stop animal sickness, increase food production efficiency, and lessen or stop the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans. Animal vaccines that are both safe and efficacious are vital to modern culture. The vaccine should induce a strong, protective and prolonged immune response against the antigenic factor. In order to achieve these goals, novel vaccination techniques and an efficient adjuvant are required to render the vaccine immunogenically protective and trigger a strong immune response. Aim: Our study aims to promote and enhance the immunogenicity against RVF virus disease through lyophilized inactivated RVF vaccine through induction of early cellular, high and prolonged humeral immunity in vaccinated animals using cabopol as stabilizer and Saponin or normal saline as a diluent at time of vaccination. Moreover, manufacturing of these vaccines is easy to be done. Results: The gained results revealed that RVF freeze-dried vaccine with Carbopol that reconstituted using Saponin elicited better immune response than that reconstituted using normal saline (NaCl). The cell mediated immune response as represented by lymphocyte blastogenesis and phagocytic activity were markedly increased with high levels when we used Saponin as a diluent than that in group vaccinated with vaccine diluted with NaCl, on the other side the humeral immune response in group vaccinated using the Saponin as diluent is more detected and stayed within the protective level till the end of 11th month post vaccination (1.5 TCID50) while the immune response induced after using normal saline as a diluent stayed within the protective level till the end of 10th month post vaccination (1.8 TCID50). Conclusion: The use of Saponin as a diluent for reconstitution of the freeze dried RVF vaccine is preferable than the use of normal saline enhancing both sheep cellular and humeral immune response.

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