All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Sero-Prevalence and Risk factors of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Afgoye District Lower Shabelle Region, Somalia

DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2024.142002, PP. 11-20

Keywords: Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Sero-Prevalence, Cattle, Somalia, Mycoplasma, Cross Sectional Study

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Contagious bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory disease of cattle and water buffalo, caused by the Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides. It induces significant economic losses and leads to a severe livestock production problem, negatively influencing people’s livelihoods of affected countries. In Somalia, there is no updated data on the prevalence and distribution of the disease. Hence, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2022 to June 2023 in different villages under the Afgoye District of lower Shabelle region, Somalia. The main purpose of this study is to assess the sero-prevalence and identify the associated risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. In this study, villages, age, sex, breed, and body condition were considered as risk factors. A total of 90 blood samples were collected and tested in the laboratory using the Anti-CBPP Elisa kit test. Out of 90 serum samples from herd cattle, 32 were positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 35.5%. In addition, we found a statistically significant variation between the prevalence of the disease and factors such as sex, age, body condition and breeds. In summary, the overall prevalence of Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in this study area is worth to be considered because there is a low quality of health care and less awareness of the Contagious bovine Pleuropneumonia effects on herds, which warrants the official authorities to act and follow appropriate preventive and control measures to reduce the incidence of the disease and generate appropriate controlling and prevention measures in all regions of Somalia.


[1]  Andrews, A.H., Blowey, R.W., Boyd, H. and Eddy, R.G. (2008) Bovine Medicine: Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[2]  Dejene, W. (1996) Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP): Prevalence and Evaluation of Post-Vaccination Immune Response (North Omo, Konso and Dirashe Regions/Ethiopia). DVM Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debrezeit, 37-48.
[3]  Desta, B. (1998) Sero-Epidemiological Investigation of CBPP in Ilu Ababor and Wellega (Western Ethiopia). DVM Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debrezeit, 20-25.
[4]  Daniel, W. (2015) The Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Cameroon: A Case Study Garoua Central Abattoir, Cameroun. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Research, 2, 1029.
[5]  Ebisa, T., Hirpa, E. and Aklilu, F. (2015) Study on Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Southern Nationand Nationality People of Ethiopia Regional State in Amaro Special District. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 4, 106-112.
[6]  EMPRES-AH, FAO (2013) Standing Group of Experts on Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia for Africa.
[7]  Sacchini, F., Luciani, M., Salini, R., Scacchia, M., Pini, A., Lelli, R. and Jores, J. (2012) Plasma Levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 during a Course of Experimental Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, Article No. 44.
[8]  Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Animal Production, Health Division, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests (2002) Improved Animal Health for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Livelihoods (No. 153). Food & Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), Rome.
[9]  Gedlu, M.G. (2004) Serological, Clinical and Participatory Epidemiological Survey of CBPP in Somali Region. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa University, Debrezeit, 75.
[10]  Geresu, M.A., Kedir, K., Birhanu, D. and Teshome, A. (2017) Sero-Epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factors for Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia Infection of Cattle in Dello Mena and Sawena Districts of Bale Zone, South Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 9, 122-132.
[11]  IGAD Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (2015) The Contribution of Livestock to the Somali Economy. 1-39.
[12]  Karam, I., Zaki, A.Z.S.A. and Elshalalli, A.A. (2017) A Study on Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Khartoum State, Sudan. Journal of Veterinary Healthcare, 1, 13-20.
[13]  Malicha, G., Alemu, S., Aklilu, F. and Abraha, A. (2017) Study of Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, 8, Article ID: 1000471.
[14]  Mersha, T. (2016) Sero-Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Its Potential Risk Factors in Selected Sites of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 20, 31-41.
[15]  Mtui-Malamsha, N.J. (2009) Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the Maasai Ecosystem of South-Western Kenya: Evaluation of Seroprevalence, Risk Factors and Vaccine Safety and Efficacy.
[16]  Muigai, A., Matete, G., Aden, H.H., Tapio, M., Okeyo, A.M. and Marshall, K. (2016) The Indigenous farm Genetic Resources of Somalia: Preliminary Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Cattle, Sheep and Goats. ILRI (Aka ILCA and ILRAD).
[17]  Mamo, Y., Bitew, M., Teklemariam, T., Soma, M., Gebre, D., Abera, T. and Deneke, Y. (2018) Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Gimbo District, Southwest Ethiopia. Veterinary Medicine International, 2018, Article ID: 5729296.
[18]  Nur, A.H. (2005) Report on AnGR for Somaliland and Somali. FAO, Rome.
[19]  Radostits, O.M., et al. (2007) Veterinary Medicine. 10th Edition, WB Saunders Company Ltd., London.
[20]  Regassa, F. (2001) Herd Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP), Bovine Tuberculosis and Dictyocaulosis in BodjiWoreda, West Wellega. DVM Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debrezeit.
[21]  Rege, J.E.O. (1999) The State of African Cattle Genetic Resources I. Classification Framework and Identification of Threatened and Extinct Breeds. Animal Genetic Resources, 25, 1-25.
[22]  Santini, F.G., Visaggio, M., Farinelli, G., Di Francesco, G., Guarducci, M., D’Angelo, A.R. and Di Giannatale, E. (1992) Pulmonary Sequestrum from Mycoplasma mycoides var. mycoides SC in a Domestic Buffalo: Isolation, Anatomo-Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry. Veterinaria Italiana, 4, 4-10.
[23]  Suleiman, A., Bello, M., Dzikwi, A.A., Talba, A.M., Grema, H.A. and Geidam, Y.A. (2015) Serological Prevalence of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia in Agro-Pastoral Areas of Nigeria. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47, 1033-1042.
[24]  Schnier, C., Mtui-Malamsha, N.J., Cleaveland, S., Kiara, H., Grace, D., McKeever, D.J. and Zadoks, R. (2006) CBPP Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in the Maasaiecosystem of South-Western Kenya. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Cairns, 6-11 August 2006, 150-165.
[25]  WOAH Terrestrial Manual 2021: Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia. 1-17.
[26]  WOAH-WAHIS Composite Map (2005-2019) of the Distribution of CBPP in Africa.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413