All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Collaborative Efforts and Strategies for Cholera Outbreak Control in Garissa County, Kenya: Implementation of Water Quality Monitoring Interventions

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.162008, PP. 123-139

Keywords: Cholera, Drinking Water, Household Water Treatment, Kenya

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


A multi-faceted Case Area Targeted Intervention (CATI) approach emphasizing the integration of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions and Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) campaign was employed to respond to the outbreak of cholera in Garissa County. Drinking water sources in areas heavily impacted by cholera were systematically mapped and tested for microbiological quality. The quality assessment was carried out in April 2023 during an ongoing cholera outbreak in the county. A total of 109 samples were collected and tested for thermotolerant coliforms and other in situ parameters. The finding revealed that more than 87% of the samples did not meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for thermotolerant coliforms; and 30% had turbidity values above the recommended threshold values. None of the 109 samples had any traceable residual chlorine. Following these findings, the county government implemented the targeted interventions which resulted in a positive impact in the fight against cholera. The WHO supported key interventions which included capacity building in water quality monitoring and prepositioning of critical WASH commodities to the cholera affected areas.


[1]  WHO (2022) Cholera.
[2]  Bi, Q., Abdalla, F.M., Masauni, S., Reyburn, R., Msambazi, M., Deglise, C., et al. (2018) The Epidemiology of Cholera in Zanzibar: Implications for the Zanzibar Comprehensive Cholera Elimination Plan. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15, 173-180.
[3]  Lessler, J., Moore, S.M., Luquero, F.J., McKay, H.S., Grais, R., Henkens, M., et al. (2018) Mapping the Burden of Cholera in Sub-Saharan Africa and Implications for Control: An Analysis of Data across Geographical Scales. Lancet, 12, 1908-1915.
[4]  Mageto, L.M., Mutono, N., Aboge, G., et al. (2023) Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Cholera Cases in High-Risk Areas of Kenya. BMJ Yale, 2225, 1-24.
[5]  Anis, H., Uwishema, O., Hamitoglu, A.E., Essayli, D., et al. (2023) Multicountry Cholera Outbreak Alert in Kenya: Current Efforts and Recommendations. International Journal of Surgery, 109, 555-557.
[6]  UNICEF (2021) Kenya Sanitation Alliance Launched by Government and UNICEF, Targeting 15 Counties with Highest Rates of Open Defecation.
[7]  Kiama, C., Okunga, E., Muange, A., Marwanga, D., Langat, D., et al. (2023) Mapping of Cholera Hotspots in Kenya Using Epidemiologic and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Indicators as Part of Kenya’s New 2022-2030 Cholera Elimination Plan. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 17, 1-17.
[8]  Boru, W., Xiao, S., Amoth, P., Kareko, D., Langat, D., Were, I., et al. (2023) Prioritizing Interventions for Cholera Control in Kenya, 2015-2020. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 17, 1-13.
[9]  Usmani, M., Brumfield, K.D., Magers, B.M., et al. (2023) Combating Cholera by Building Predictive Capabilities for Pathogenic Vibrio Cholerae in Yemen. Scientific Reports, 13, 1-13.
[10]  Perez-Saez, J., Lessler, J., Lee, E.C., Luquero, F.J., Malembaka, E.B., Finger, F., Langa, J.P., Yennan, S., Zaitchik, B. and Azman, A.S. (2022) The Seasonality of Cholera in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Statistical Modeling Study. The Lancet Global Health, 10, 831-839.
[11]  Moore, S.M., Azman, A.S., Zaitchik, B.F., Mintz, E.D., et al. (2017) El Nino and the shifting geography of cholera in Africa, PNAS: Biological Sciences, 114, 4436-4441.
[12]  WASREB (2008) Guidelines on Drinking Water Quality and Effluent Monitoring. Guidelines on Drinking Water Quality and Effluent Monitoring. 1-41.
[13]  WHO (2018) Housing and Health Guidelines. WHO Guideline Values for Drinking-Water Quality: Bacteria.
[14]  Lantagne, D. and Yates, T. (2018) Household Water Treatment and Cholera Control. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 15, 147-153.
[15]  Stubbe, S.M.L., Pelgrim-Adams, A., Szanto, G.L., and Halem, D. (2016) Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage-Effectiveness and Economics. Drinking Water Engineering and Science, 9, 9-18.
[16]  Blanton, E., Wilhelm, N., O’Reilly, C., Muhonja, E., Karoki, S., Ope, M., et al. (2015) A Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Informal Settlements after a Cholera Outbreak in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Water and Health, 13, 714-725.
[17]  Ramachandraiah, C. (2001) Drinking Water as a Fundamental Right. Economic and Political Weekly, 36, 619-621.
[18]  Wang, A., Hardy, C., Rajasingham, A., Martinsen, A., et al. (2016) Notes from the Field: Chlorination Strategies for Drinking Water during a Cholera Epidemic—Tanzania, 2016. The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 65, 1150-1151.
[19]  Walton, B. (2023) Cholera Cases Spike Amid Extreme Weather, Conflict.
[20]  Korir, B. (2020) An Analysis of Kenya’s Water Sector Institutional and Regulatory Framework from 2002-2017. Master’s Thesis, Strathmore University, Nairobi.
[21]  Tambi, A., Brighu, U. and Gupta, A.B. (2023) Methods for Detection and Enumeration of Coliforms in Drinking Water: A Review. Water Supply, 23, 4047-4058.
[22]  Si, F., Huang, T.L., Li, N., Li, K., et al. (2022) Effects of Flood Discharge on the Water Quality of a Drinking Water Reservoir in China—Characteristics and Management Strategies. Journal of Environmental Management, 314, 1-7.
[23]  Sun, R., An, D., Lu, W., Shi, Y., et al. (2016) Impacts of a Flash Flood on Drinking Water Quality: A Case Study of Areas Most Affected by the 2012 Beijing Flood. Heliyon, 2, E00071.
[24]  Forster, B. and Pinedo, C.A. (2016) Bacteriological Examination of Waters: Membrane Filtration Protocol. American Society for Microbiology, 1-15.
[25]  GTFCC (2019) Technical Note: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene and Infection Prevention and Control in Cholera Treatment Structures.
[26]  Munene, E.N., Hashim, N.O. and Ambusso, W.N. (2023) Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in Surface Water of Sosian River, Eldoret Town, Uasin-Gishu County Kenya. MethodsX, 11, 1-8.
[27]  Oduor, O.J., Kinuthia, K.D. and Wachira, D.N. (2019) Assimilation of Pollution Loading on Sosiani River in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya: As a Wastewater Management Strategy. American Journal of Water Resources, 7, 155-162.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413