All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Characterization of Wastewater in School Environments for an Ecological Treatment Solution: A Case Study of Ndiebene Gandiol 1 School

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2024.161003, PP. 27-40

Keywords: Wastewater Characterization, Ecological Treatment, School Sanitation, Phytoremediation, Rural Infrastructure, Environmental Health

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The study conducted at Ndiebene Gandiol 1 school in Senegal has unveiled serious environmental and public health challenges. The wastewater analysis revealed high levels of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and fecal coliforms, signaling potential risks to the well-being of students and staff. This situation mirrors a wider issue in rural educational settings, where inadequate sanitation persists. Intensive wastewater treatment options are known for their effectiveness against high pollutant loads but are resource-intensive in both energy and cost. Conversely, extensive treatment systems, while requiring more land, provide a sustainable alternative by harnessing natural processes for pollutant removal. The research suggests a hybrid treatment approach could serve the school’s needs, balancing the robust capabilities of intensive methods with the ecological benefits of extensive systems. Such a solution would need to be tailored to the specific environmental, financial, and logistical context of the school, based on comprehensive feasibility studies and stakeholder engagement. This study’s findings underscore the urgency of addressing sanitation in schools, as it is intrinsically linked to the health and academic success of students. Quick, effective, and long-term strategies are vital to secure a healthier and more prosperous future for the youth. With proper implementation, the school can transform its sanitation facilities, setting a precedent for rural educational institutions in Senegal and similar contexts globally.


[1]  Onu-Eau, R.G. (2019) Analyse et évaluation mondiales sur l’assainissement et l’eau potable, rapport glaas 2019. Suisse, 2019.
[2]  Lenntech (2023) Normes de l’OMS sur l’eau potable.
[3]  UNICEF (2017) Rapport sur l’assainissement au Sénégal. Sénégal.
[4]  World Health Organization (2019) Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2000-2017: Special Focus on Inequalities.
[5]  Lombard-Latune, R. (2019) Innover pour les services d’assainissement en zone tropicale: Approche technique par filtres plantés de végétaux et accompagnement par modélisation participative. Ph.D. Thesis, Université de Lyon, Lyon.
[6]  Nikiema, J., et al. (2012) Wastewater Treatment Practices in Africa—Experiences from Seven Countries. Water Biotech, 9 p.
[7]  ANSD (2019) Situation économique et sociale du Sénégal en 2016: Chapitre VIII, eau et assainissement. Comite de redaction de l’agence nationale de la statistique et de la demographie, Dakar.
[8]  Magallanes, L.A., et al. (2020) Water Reuse Strategy through Phyto-Purification for Experiential Learning in a Rural School. Proceedings of the 2020 4th International Conference on Education and E-Learning, Yamanashi, 6-8 November 2020, 102-107.
[9]  PAEMS (2018) Atlas Eau Potable et Assainissement en Milieu Scolaire.
[10]  Vymazal, J. (2011) Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Five Decades of Experience. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 61-69.
[11]  Borin, M., Politeo, M. and De Stefani, G. (2013) Performance of a Hybrid Constructed Wetland Treating Piggery Wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 51, 229-236.
[12]  Calheiros, C.S., Rangel, A.O. and Castro, P.M. (2007) Constructed Wetland Systems Vegetated with Different Plants Applied to the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater. Water Research, 41, 1790-1798.
[13]  Fidele, M.K. (2021) Conception d’une station expérimentale de traitement des eaux usées par filtres plantés des macrophytes: <>. PhD Thesis, Université Cote d’Azur, Nice.
[14]  Morvannou, A., Forquet, N., Michel, S., Troesch, S. and Molle, P. (2015) Treatment Performances of French Constructed Wetlands: Results from a Database Collected over the Last 30 Years. Water Science & Technology, 71, 1333-1339.
[15]  Irie, J.G. (2023) Effet des saisons sur la variation du niveau de pollution organique des eaux de la lagune Ebrié en Cote d’Ivoire. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 17, 720-734.
[16]  Kirchhoff, C.E. (2019) Les systèmes de traitement des eaux usées s’adaptent-ils au changement climatique? JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 55, 869-880.
[17]  Mddelcc, Q. (Ed.) (2016) Procédures d’échantillonnage pour le suivi de la qualité de l’eau en rivière. Québec.
[18]  Nill, R. (2019) Comment sélectionner et utiliser l’équipement de protection individuelle. Manuel de sécurité et de santé au travail.
[19]  United States Environmental Protection Agency (2023) Procedures for Collecting Wastewater Samples.
[20]  Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) (2019) Lignes directrices relatives à l’assainissement et à la santé.
[21]  Eme, C. and Boutin, C. (2015) Composition des eaux usées domestiques par source d’émission à l’échelle de l’habitation. ONEMA.
[22]  Simpson, B., et al. (2013) Wastewater Sampling: Operating Procedure. Region 4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science and Ecosystem Support Division Athens, Georgia.
[23]  Lateu, U. (2023) Laboratoire de Traitement des Eaux Usées (LATEU—UCAD).
[24]  Prambudy, H.S. (2019) Les tests de la demande chimique en oxygène (DCO) et de la demande biologique en oxygène (DBO) de l’eau de la rivière à Cipager Cirebon. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1360, Article ID: 012010.
[25]  Asteris, P.G. (2020) Machine Learning Approach for Rapid Estimation of Five-Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Wastewater. Water, 15, Article 103.
[26]  Bertrand, E.N. (2008) Etude de l’influence des matières en suspension sur les sols irrigués par les eaux usées traitées. Institut International d’Ingénierie de l’Eau et de l’Environnement.
[27]  Banas, D. (2006) Nitrates. The White Paper Pollutants Habitat.
[28]  Yu, C., et al. (2019) Managing Nitrogen to Restore Water Quality in China. Nature, 567, 516-520.
[29]  Jiao, G.M. (2021) Avancées et défis récents en matière d’élimination et de recyclage du phosphate des eaux usées à l’aide d’adsorbants dérivés de la biomasse. Chemosphère, 278, Article ID: 130377.
[30]  Makuwa, S., Tlou, M., Fosso-Kankeu, E. and Green, E. (2020) Evaluation of Fecal Coliform Prevalence and Physicochemical Indicators in the Effluent from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the North-West Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, Article 6381.
[31]  Rodier, J., Legube, B. and Merlet, N. (2016) L’analyse de l’eau-10e éd. Dunod, Malakoff.
[32]  Nan, X., Lavrnic, S., Mancuso, G. and Toscano, A. (2023) Effects of Design and Operational Conditions on the Performance of Constructed Wetlands for Agricultural Pollution Control—Critical Review. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 234, Article No. 434.
[33]  Berland, J.M., Boutin, C., Molle, P. and Cooper, P. (2001) Extensive Wastewater Treatment Processes Adapted to Small and Medium Sized Communities (500 to 5000 Population Equivalents): Implementation of Council Directive 91-271 of 21 May 1991 Concerning Urban waste Water Treatment.
[34]  Bourrier, R., Satin, M. and Selmi, B. (2010) Guide technique de l’assainissement.
[35]  World Health Organization (2022) Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First and Second Addenda.
[36]  Commission, E.E. (2018) Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and on the Council on Minimum Requirements for Water Reuse. Brussels.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413