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西方犯罪行为的扩张及司法化——基于梅因《古代法》第十章的阐释
The Expansion and Judicialization of Western Criminal Behavior—An Interpretation Based on the Chapter 10 of Henry Maine’s Ancient Law

DOI: 10.12677/ISL.2023.74017, PP. 123-128

Keywords: 西方犯罪行为,犯罪行为,不法行为
Western Criminal Behavior
, Criminal Behavior, Wrongful Behavior

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Abstract:

西方古代犯罪行为仅指侵害国家利益的行为,以类似于立法活动的特殊审判来惩罚,隶属于立法机构的刑事审问处是一个典型代表。侵害个人利益行为称为不法行为,具有侵权行为特质,通过赔偿金来解决。在封建统治者和宗教势力干预下,西方犯罪行为的审判权被集中于君主,作为常设审判机构的刑事法院开始出现,西方犯罪行为的范围逐步扩张至侵害个人利益行为,西方犯罪行为的审判由立法权过渡至司法权。
In ancient West, crime only referred to behavior that infringed on national interests. In ancient Western societies, a distinctive form of judicial proceedings resembling legislative activities was employed to address criminal offenses. Quaestio, under the jurisdiction of legislative bodies, serves as a representative example. Acts that infringe upon individual interests are referred to as wrongful conduct, characterized by tortious acts, and are typically resolved through the payment of damages. With the intervention of feudal rulers and religious forces, the judicial power of crime was concen-trated in the monarch. The Criminal Court, as a permanent judicial body, begins to emerge. The scope of Western crime gradually included behavior that infringed on personal interests. Conduct-ing trials in the West thus transitioned from legislative power to judicial power.

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