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Basic Research on Developing Methods for Teaching and Evaluating Off-Ball Movement in Elementary Physical Education Soccer: A Comparison of Game Performance with Regional Soccer Club

DOI: 10.4236/ape.2023.134017, PP. 195-207

Keywords: Elementary School, Physical Education, Regional Club, Off-Ball Movement, Support, Around Defender Diamond Shape, Teaching Methods, Evaluation Methods

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In upper elementary school physical education, the primary focus of ball games is on teaching students how to play offense and defense in groups. However, there is a lack of consideration regarding how to teach and evaluate group movement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain data for the development of teaching and evaluation methods for off-the-ball group movement in elementary school soccer classes. In a soccer game, the occurrence rate of the Around Defender Diamond Shape (ADDS) formation, the passing success rate, and the number of players who could receive the ball were comparatively analyzed among three groups: 5th-grade students from H Elementary School (HS5 students), 4th-grade students from G Soccer Club (GC4 students), and 5th-grade students from G Soccer Club (GC5 students). The following results were observed: 1) The occurrence rate of the ADDS formation was significantly higher among GC4 students (52.5%) and GC5 students (56.3%) compared to HS5 students (27.8%). 2) The passing success rate was significantly higher among GC5 students (50.5%) compared to HS5 students (28.6%). 3) A significant difference was observed in the number of players who could receive the ball, with HS5 students exhibiting a higher occurrence rate (27.8%) of cases in which four players could receive the ball compared to GC4 students (15.1%). From the above, it can be inferred that off-ball group movement is a learnable tactical task for fourth and fifth grade elementary school students. Furthermore, there is a need for novel indicators for teaching and evaluating collaborative movement in groups. The ADDS formation may be one such indicator.


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