All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

Quantifying and Simplifying the 1997 UNWC’s Guidelines to Mitigate Hegemony in Transboundary Watercourse Negotiations

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2023.155013, PP. 215-228

Keywords: Orontes River, Assi River, Transboundary Watercourses, Equitable and Reasonable Utilization, 1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, Lebanon-Syria Relations

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The 1997 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (UNWC) contains a negotiation framework for transboundary water rights. However, it is a subjective document open to a wide range of possibilities and interpretations. Water Rights Allocations (WRAs) as described by Dinar and Nigatu (2013) and Dinar and Tsur (2017) provide a limited number of quantifiable allocation possibilities based on the UNWC. It is suggested that this methodology streamlines the negotiation process and reduces the effects of hydro hegemony. These methodologies are explored and applied through a case study on the Orontes River Basin.

References

[1]  Wouters, P.K., Vinogradov, S., Allan, A., Jones, P. and Rieu-Clarke, A. (2005) Sharing Transboundary Waters: An Integrated Assessment of Equitable Entitlement—The Legal Assessment Model. International Hydrological Programme (IHP) of the United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Paris.
[2]  Dinar, A. and Nigatu, G.S. (2013) Distributional Considerations of International Water Resources under Externality: The Case of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt on the Blue Nile. Water Resources and Economics, 2-3, 1-16.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wre.2013.07.001
[3]  Dinar, A. and Tsur, Y. (2017) Management of Transboundary Water Resources under Scarcity: A Multidisciplinary Approach. World Scientific, Singapore.
[4]  Zeitoun, M. and Warner, J. (2006) Hydro-Hegemony—A Framework for Analysis of Trans-Boundary Water Conflicts. Water Policy, 8, 435-460.
https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2006.054
[5]  Asian Development Bank (2006) Water and Poverty.
https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/28859/water-brief-water-and-poverty.pdf
[6]  Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) (2013) General Comment No. 15—The Right to Water (Arts. 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights).
https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G03/402/29/PDF/G0340229.pdf?OpenElement
[7]  Al-Hadath (2021) Alsysy lethywbya: “Ally ‘eayz yjrb flyjrb”. Dubai.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8zOOtPnSNc
[8]  Beaumont, P. (2000) The 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Its Strengths and Weaknesses from a Water Management Perspective and the Need for New Workable Guidelines. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 16, 475-495.
https://doi.org/10.1080/713672536
[9]  The Lebanese Republic and The Syrian Arab Republic (1994) Atfaq yt'lq btwzy' myah nhr al'asy alnab'a fy alara'y allbnanya byn aljmhwrya allbnanya waljmhwrya al'rbya alswrya.
http://77.42.251.205/DownloadAgreementPage.aspx?Target=All&type=2&ID=3833&language=ar
[10]  The Lebanese Republic and The Syrian Arab Republic (1997) Mlhq latfaq twzy' myah nhr al'asy alnab'a fy alarady allbnanya byn aljmhwrya allbnanya waljmhwrya al'rbya alswrya.
http://77.42.251.205/Law.aspx?lawId=8864
[11]  Comair, F.G. and Scoulllos, M. (2015) Orontes Hydro-Diplomacy: Historical Overview and Lebanon’s Transboundary Water Treaties. In: Ballabio, R., Comair, F.G., Scalet, M. and Scoulllos, M., Eds., Science Diplomacy and Transboundary Water Management: The Orontes River Case, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Venice, 29-54.
[12]  Peterson, C.C. (2022) Reviewing the 1994, 1997, and 2002 Agreements on the Orontes River: Is Lebanon’s Share Fair and Equitable? Master’s Thesis, American University of Beirut, Beirut, 94 p.
http://hdl.handle.net/10938/23534
[13]  Kaissi, T. (2014) Invalidating the Orontes River Treaty in the Context of Middle Eastern Politics. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 26, 175-190.
https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/gintenlr26&div=13&id=&page=
[14]  Saadé-Sbeih, M., Haj Asaad, A., Omar, S., Francois, Z., and Jaubert, R. (2018) Groundwater Balance Politics: Aquifer Overexploitation in the Orontes River Basin. Water Alternatives, 11, 663-683.
https://repository.graduateinstitute.ch/record/296507
[15]  WorldPop and Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University (2020) Global 1km Population Individual Countries.
https://doi.org/10.5258/SOTON/WP00670
[16]  The World Bank (2022) Population, Total—Syrian Arab Republic.
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=SY
[17]  The World Bank (2022) Population, Total—Lebanon.
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=LB
[18]  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2021) Multidimensional Poverty in Lebanon (2019-2021)—Painful Reality and Uncertain Prospects.
https://www.unescwa.org/sites/default/files/news/docs/21-00634-_multidimentional_poverty_in_lebanon_-policy_brief_-_en.pdf
[19]  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2017) Alatar alastratyjy lbda’el alsyasat-swrya b’ed alnza’e.
https://archive.unescwa.org/sites/www.unescwa.org/files/page_attachments/spaf-final24-1-2017.pdf
[20]  Hamati, S. (2020) A Consequence of a Tragedy: Nowcasting Poverty Rate in Syria. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 28, 299-336.
https://doi.org/10.1332/175982720X15977681182347
[21]  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia and Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (2013) Chapter 7: Orontes River Basin. In: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia and Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Eds., Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. United Nations, New York, 223-243.
[22]  Peterson, C. (2022) On the Need for Including Groundwater Allocation in Future Negotiations on the Orontes. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 14, 731-739.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2022.1411040
[23]  Jaubert, R. (2014) Syria: The Impact of Conflict on Population Displacement, Water and Agriculture in the Orontes River Basin. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Geneva.
https://reliefweb.int/attachments/4726b45e-77fc-3c35-8e4d-f6ef806d7dad/Syria%20Feb%202014-2.pdf
[24]  Hofste, R.W., Reig, P. and Schleifer, L. (2019) 17 Countries, Home to One-Quarter of the World’s Population, Face Extremely High Water Stress.
https://www.wri.org/insights/17-countries-home-one-quarter-worlds-population-face-extremely-high-water-stress
[25]  Farajalla, N., Haddad, E.A., Camargo, M., Lopes, R. and Vieira, F. (2014) Climate Change in Lebanon: Higher-Order Regional Impacts from Agriculture.
https://www.aub.edu.lb/ifi/Documents/publications/working_papers/2013-2014/20140722_Higher_order_CC.pdf
[26]  The World Bank (2022) Syrian Arab Republic.
https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/country/syrian-arab-republic/climate-data-projections

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413