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Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Uses in the Samba Dia Area, Central West Senegal

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2023.154008, PP. 130-148

Keywords: Samba Dia, Groundwater, Hydrogeochemistry, Suitability, Drinking, Irrigation

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Abstract:

In the Sahelian zone in Africa, groundwater is the main source of drinking water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. The groundwater of the Samba Dia sandy aquifer was assessed for understanding processes controlling the hydrogeochemistry and its drinking and irrigation suitability, on the basis of various water quality parameters. For the present study, thirty-three groundwater samples were collected in wells of the study area during the dry season in March 2021 and subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics (major ions), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS). Gibbs plot depicts that the process of ionic exchange is mainly due to the dissolution of water-rock interaction. The Piper diagram indicates a largely dominant sodium chloride facies with 70% of the groundwater samples followed by calcium chloride facies (18%) than calcium bicarbonate facies (12%). Analytical results of hydrogeochemical parameters of groundwater samples reveal that the majority of samples are within the World Health Organization safety range for drinking water. TDS and electrical conductivity (EC) values of groundwater indicate that 70% and 61% are safe for drinking water, respectively. Sodium percentage (% Na), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) values, and Ca/Mg ratio were calculated and compared with the standard guideline values recommended by the World Health Organization and agricultural water standards. This study shows that the groundwater in the area is mostly chemically suitable for drinking and irrigation, although some wells at the edge of the area exhibit signs of progressive salinization and traces of pollution.

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