All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Genesis of Schizophrenia: An Introspective Review

DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2023.122004, PP. 71-81

Keywords: Nasal Cycle, Lateralized Rhythms, Body Systems, Vagus Nerve

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Research and Results: Schizophrenia begins with nasal obstruction, disrupting supraschalemic nucleus output and lateralized ultradian body rhythms. If one nostril is blocked, vaso-choking occurs in the ipsilateral brain hemisphere cortex, which has vesicles connected to the nose. This disturbs the ultradian balance of the body and brain hemispheres causing abnormal behavior and bizarre thinking. The brain has a bidirectional connection and communication with the body via the nervous system. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), and vagus nerve are linked. ANS lateralization can switch from parasympathetic to sympathetic due to vagus nerve changes. Schizophrenia is characterized by Basic Rest Activity Cycle (BRAC) energy balance disruption. Let’s examine how a disruption in the lateralization of the nasal cycle can lead to pathology in the mind. Purpose and Method: A literary search is conducted in comparison with authors’ introspective insights to summarize schizophrenia’s genesis after curing this disease to fill the knowledge gap between a few relevant theories to build a percept of the disease through this (mini) narrative review. Conclusion: Nasal cycle and vagus nerve toning can play roles in mental health.


[1]  Bradley, L., Noble, N. and Hendricks, B. (2023) DSM-5-TR: Salient Changes. The Family Journal, 31, 5-10.
[2]  Cuthbert, B.N. (2022) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): Progress and Potential. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 31, 107-114.
[3]  Petric, D. (2022) Explaining Schizophrenia from Medical and Philosophical Perspective. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 11, 191-204.
[4]  Weinberger, D.R. (1987) Implications of Normal Brain Development for the Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 660-669.
[5]  Gur, R.E. (1978) Left Hemisphere Dysfunction and Left Hemisphere Overactivation in Schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 226-238.
[6]  Borod, J.C., Martin, C.C., Alpert, M., Brozgold, A. and Welkowintz, J. (1993) Perception of Facial Emotion in Schizophrenic and Right Brain-Damaged Patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 494-502.
[7]  Howes, O.D. and Shatalina, E. (2022) Integrating the Neurodevelopmental and Dopamine Hypotheses of Schizophrenia and the Role of Cortical Excitation-Inhibition Balance. Biological Psychiatry, 92, 501-513.
[8]  Kucharska-Pietura, K. (2006) Disordered Emotional Processing in Schizophrenia and One-Sided Brain Damage. Progress in Brain Research, 156, 467-479.
[9]  Rotenberg, V.S. (1994) An Integrative Psychophysiological Approach to Brain Hemisphere Functions in Schizophrenia. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 18, 487-495.
[10]  Gur, R.E., Resnick, S.M. and Gur, R.C. (1987) Regional Brain Function in Schizophrenia: II. Repeated Evaluation with Positron Emission Tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 126-129.
[11]  David, A.S. and Cutting, J.C. (1990) Affect, Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia: A Neuropsychological Investigation of Right Hemisphere Function. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 491-495.
[12]  Wolkin, A., Sanfilipo, M. and Wolf, A.P. (1992) Negative Symptoms and Hypofrontality in Chronic Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 959-965.
[13]  Buchsbaum, M.S., Haier, R.S. and Potkin, S.G. (1992) Frontostriatal Disorder of Cerebral Metabolism in Never-Medicated Schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 935-942.
[14]  Murray, R.M. and Foerster, A. (1987) Schizophrenia: Is the Concept Disintegrating? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 1, 133-139.
[15]  Fišar, Z. (2022) Biological Hypotheses, Risk Factors, and Biomarkers of Schizophrenia. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 120, Article ID: 110626.
[16]  Levy, J., Heller, W., Banich, M.T. and Burton, L.A. (1983) Asymmetry of Perception in Free Viewing of Chimeric Faces. Brain and Cognition, 2, 404-419.
[17]  Kolb, B., Milner, B. and Taylor, L. (1983) Perception of Faces by Patients with Localized Cortical Excisions. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 37, 8-18.
[18]  Sato-Suzuki, I. (2022) Physiology of the Vagus Nerve: Basic Medical Research from the Past to the Present. Brain and Nerve, 74, 955-958.
[19]  Waheed, W. and Vizzard, M.A. (2023) Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System. In: Biaggioni, I., Browning, K., Fink, G., Jordan, J., Low, P.A. and Paton, J.F.R., Eds., Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 17-29.
[20]  Porges, S.W. (1995) Orienting in a Defensive World: Mammalian Modifications of our Evolutionary Heritage. A Polyvagal Theory. Psychophysiology, 32, 301-318.
[21]  Browning, K.N. and Travagli, R.A. (2023) Extrinsic Control of Gastrointestinal Function. In: Biaggioni, I., Browning, K., Fink, G., Jordan, J., Low, P.A. and Paton, J.F.R., Eds., Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 219-222.
[22]  Porges, S.W. (2003) The Polyvagal Theory: Phylogenetic Contributions to Social Behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 79, 503-513.
[23]  Furness, J.B., Callaghan, B.P., Rivera, L.R. and Cho, H.J. (2014) The Enteric Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Innervation: Integrated Local and Central Control. In: Lyte, M. and Cryan, J., Eds., Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease, Springer, New York, NY, 39-71.
[24]  Schemann, M. and Neunlist, M. (2004) The Human Enteric Nervous System. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 16, 55-59.
[25]  Tubbs, R.S., Rizk, E., Shoja, M.M., Loukas, M., Barbaro, N. and Spinner, R.J. (2015) Nerves and Nerve Injuries: Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. Academic Press, Cambridge.
[26]  Foster, J.A. and Neufeld, K.A.M. (2013) Gut-Brain Axis: How the Microbiome Influences Anxiety and Depression. Trends in Neurosciences, 36, 305-312.
[27]  Porges, S.W. (2001) The Polyvagal Theory: Phylogenetic Substrates of a Social Nervous System. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42, 123-146.
[28]  Whissell, C. (2023) Emotion and the Body. In: Engaging with Emotion, Springer, Cham, 65-87.
[29]  Werntz, D.A., Bickford, R.G., Bloom, F.E. and Shannahoff-Khalsa, D.S. (1983) Alternating Cerebral Hemispheric Activity and the Lateralization of Autonomic Nervous Function. Human Neurobiology, 2, 39-43.
[30]  Borbély, A. (2022) The Two-Process Model of Sleep Regulation: Beginnings and Outlook. Journal of Sleep Research, 31, e13598.
[31]  Kleitman, N. (1967) Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic and Environmental Determinants in the Evolution of Sleep-Wakefulness Cycles. Research Publications-Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 45, 30-38.
[32]  Kleitman, N. (1982) Basic Rest-Activity Cycle—22 Years Later. Sleep, 5, 311-317.
[33]  Selye, H. (1946) The General Adaptation Syndrome and the Diseases of Adaptation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 6, 117-230.
[34]  HESS, W. (1954) Diencephalon, Autonomic and Extrapyramidal Functions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 762.
[35]  Kalogeras, K.T., Nieman, L.K., Friedman, T.C., Doppman, J.L., Cutter, G.B., Chrousos, G.P., et al. (1996) Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Healthy Subjects Reveals a Unilateral Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Induced Arginine Vasopressin Release Associated with Ipsilateral Adrenocorticotropin Secretion. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 97, 2045-2050.
[36]  Lu, Q. and Kim, J.Y. (2022) Mammalian Circadian Networks Mediated by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus. The FEBS Journal, 289, 6589-6604.
[37]  Price, A. and Eccles, R. (2016) Nasal Airflow and Brain Activity: Is There a Link? The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 130, 794-799.
[38]  Shannahoff-Khalsa, D.S., Boyle, M.R. and Buebel, M.E. (1991) The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing on Cognition. International Journal of Neuroscience, 57, 239-249.
[39]  Schiff, B.B. and Rump, S.A. (1995) Asymmetrical Hemispheric Activation and Emotion—The Effects of Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing. Brain and Cognition, 29, 217-231.
[40]  Breier, A., Buchanan, R.W., D’Souza, D., Nuechterlein, K., Marder, S., Dunn, W., et al. (2019) Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection and Valacyclovir Treatment in Schizophrenia: Results from the VISTA Study. Schizophrenia Research, 206, 291-299.
[41]  Curtis, W.M., Seeds, W.A., Mattson, M.P. and Bradshaw, P.C. (2022) NADPH and Mitochondrial Quality Control as Targets for a Circadian-Based Fasting and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Cells, 11, Article 2416.
[42]  D’Aiuto, L., Prasad, K.M., Upton, C.H., Viggiano, L., Milosevic, J., Raimondi, G., et al. (2015) Persistent Infection by HSV-1 Is Associated with Changes in Functional Architecture of iPSC-Derived Neurons and Brain Activation Patterns Underlying Working Memory Performance. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41, 123-132.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413