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Anti-Melanogenesis Activity of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract from Perilla frutescens Seeds

DOI: 10.4236/abc.2023.131004, PP. 42-55

Keywords: Perilla frutescens, Melanogenesis, Supercritical Carbon Dioxide, B16 Mouse Melanoma Cells

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Abstract:

Perilla frutescens seed (PFS) oil is reported to inhibit skin photoaging; however, its effect on melanogenesis has not yet been investigated. Herein, we tested the anti-melanogenesis activity of an oil-based extract from PFS with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). In a cell culture system, B16 mouse melanoma cells were treated with the PFS scCO2 extract and other samples. The PFS scCO2 extract decreased melanin production by approximately 90% in B16 mouse melanoma cells without cytotoxicity at 100 μg/mL. This effect was greater than that of the well-known melanogenesis inhibitor, kojic acid. Although a hexane-extracted PFS oil and a squeezed PFS oil also decreased melanin production in the B16 cells, the inhibitory effect of the PFS scCO2 extract was higher than both of these. Chemical analysis of the PFS scCO2 extract and squeezed PFS oil showed that almost 90% of the components of both oils were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. Furthermore, the ratio of those three fatty acids across both samples was almost the same. When the three fatty acids were mixed in the same ratio as in the PFS scCO2 extract, the IC50 of the mixture for melanin production in B16 melanoma cells was identical to that of the PFS scCO2 extract. However, the IC50 of the squeezed PFS oil was approximately 6.6 times higher than that of the mixture. Although those fatty acids are the main inhibitory ingredients against melanin production in all of the extracts, some factor(s) in the squeezed PFS reduce their affinity with the cells. These results indicated that the PFS scCO2 extract could be a superior melanogenesis inhibitor. Although its main ingredients are probably the same as those of the squeezed PFS oil, it is necessary to extract with scCO2 for stronger anti-melanogenesis activity.

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