All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Nonlinear Properties of an Inhomogeneous Diode Structure in a Strong Microwave Field

DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2023.131001, PP. 1-13

Keywords: Quadratic Detection, p-n-Junction, Point Contact, Schottky Barrier, High-Power Microwave Signal, Polarity Reversal, ThermoEMF, Hysteresis

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Results of experimental investigation of detection (rectification) of high power X-band microwave signal in diodes of various design (semiconductor p-n-junction, point-contact, Schottky, Metal-Isolator-MetalMIM) are reported. The maximum of the detected direct voltage V vs. power P of microwave signal and subsequent polarity reversal, previously found in MIM diodes in the optical and microwave bands, have found to be characteristic of all investigated diodes as well. After the reversal of polarity, this dependence comes linear, and the sign of the voltage corresponds to thermoEMF. In some diodes, the hysteresis on V(P) was observed. All 5 types of V(P) of MIM diodes (have made from different pairs of metals), reported earlier, were reproduced on same p-n-junction diode by variable external DC bias. These results joined with abnormal frequency cutoff forced to suggest that there is an unknown mechanism for direct flow of charge carriers (and for generate direct current) in the high-frequency electrical field, which differs from the conventional rectification.


[1]  Azad, I., Ram, M.K., Goswami, D.Y. and Stefanakos, E. (2018) Fabrication and Characterization of NiO Based Metal-Insulator-Metal Diode Using Langmuir-Blodgett Method for High Frequency Rectification. AIP Advances, 8, Article ID: 045219.
[2]  Zhao, H., Gao, H., Cao, T. and Li, B. (2018) Efficient Full-Spectrum Utilization, Reception and Conversion of Solar Energy by Broad-Band Nanospiral Antenna. Optics Express, 26, A178-A191.
[3]  Gadalla, M.N., Abdel-Rahman, M. and Shamim, A. (2014) 28.3 THz Nano-Rectenna for Infrared Detection and Rectification. Scientific Reports, 4, Article No. 4270.
[4]  Conley, J.F. and Alimardani, N. (2013) Ch. 6. Impact of Electrode Roughness on Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) Diodes and Step Tunneling in Nanolaminate Tunnel Barrier Metal-Insulator-Insulator-Metal (MIIM) Diodes. In: Moddel, G. and Grover, S., Eds., Rectenna Solar Cells, Springer, New York, 111-134.
[5]  Reynaud, C.A., Duché, D., Simon, J.-J., et al. (2020) Rectifying Antennas for Energy Harvesting from the Microwaves to Visible Light: A Review. Progress in Quantum Electronics, 72, 100265-100293.
[6]  Hesler, J., Prasankumar, R. and Tignon, J. (2019) Advances in Terahertz Solid-State Physics and Devices. Journal of Applied Physics, 126, Article ID: 110401.
[7]  Mescia, L. and Massaro, A. (2014) New Trends in Energy Harvesting from Earth Long-Wave Infrared Emission. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2014, Article ID: 252879.
[8]  Roy, S.K. and Mitra, M. (2006) Microwave Semiconductor Devices. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi.
[9]  Hagerty, J.A. (2003) Nonlinear Circuits and Antennas for Microwave Energy Conversion. PhD Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder.
[10]  Gonibeed, A.K. (2020) Terahertz Diodes: A Review. J. Nano Research, Advanced Materials and Polymer Science, 1, 4.
[11]  Watson, H.A. (1969) Microwave Semiconductor Devices and Their Circuit Applications. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
[12]  Bayliss, R., Cabrera, E. and Howe, S. (2013) Microwave Diodes… Why a Schottky-Barrier? Why a Point-Contact?
[13]  Grigoriev, A.D., Ivanov, V.A. and Molokovsky, S.I. (2018) Microwave Electronics. Springer, New York.
[14]  Grover, S. and Moddel, G. (2011) Applicability of Metal/Insulator/Metal (MIM) Diodes to Solar Rectennas. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 1, 78-83.
[15]  Guff, T. (2016) MOM Devices.
[16]  Gustafson, T.K., Schmidt, R.V. and Perucca, J.R. (1974) Optical Detection in Thin-Film Metal-Oxide-Metal Diodes. Applied Physics Letters, 24, 620-622.
[17]  Faris, S., Gustafson, T.K. and Wiesner, J.C. (1973) Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation with DC-Biased Electron-Tunneling Metal-Barrier-Metal Diodes. IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 9, 737-745.
[18]  Kwok, S.P., Haddad, G.I. and Lobov, G. (1971) Metal-Oxide-Metal (MOM) Detector. Journal of Applied Physics, 42, 554-563.
[19]  Pyee, M., Uebersfeld, J., Auvray, J. and Gastaud, C. (1974) Experimental Microwave Study of Metal-to-Metal Point-Contact Diodes. Proceedings of the IEEE, 62, 526-529.
[20]  Abdurakhmanov, G., Esbergenova, A. and Reyimbaeva, S. (2021) Anomalies of Frequency Cutoff of Semiconductor Diodes at Microwave. Technical Physics Letters, 47, 5-7.
[21]  Sullivan, T.E., Lucas, A.A. and Cutler, P.H. (1977) Comments on Nonlinearity, Response Time and Polarity Reversal in a Thermal Field Emission Metal Whisker Diode. Journal of Applied Physics, 14, 289-294.
[22]  Green, S.I. (1971) Point Contact MOM Tunneling Detector Analysis. Journal of Applied Physics, 42, 1166-1169.
[23]  Green, S.I., Coleman, P.D. and Baird, J.R. (1970) The MOM Electric Tunneling Detector. In: Fox, J., Ed., Proceedings of the Symposium on Submillimeter Waves, Polytech, New York, 369-389.
[24]  Asiya, W.X., Ma, J., Osato, T., Zhu, W., Nguyen, K. and Sekiya, H. (2020) Generalized Analysis and Performance Investigation of the Class-E/Fn Rectifiers. IEEE Access, 8, 124145-124157.
[25]  Sze, S.M. (1981) Physics of Semiconductor Device. Wiley, New York.
[26]  Conwell, E. (1967) High Field Transport in Semiconductors. Academic Press, New York.
[27]  Harrison, R. and Zucker, J. (1963) Microwave Detection and Mixing Using the Thermoelectric Effect of Hot Carriers in Semiconductor. Applied Physics Letters, 3, 153-154.
[28]  Denis, V. and Pojela, Y. (1971) Hot Electrons. Vilnius, Mintis. (In Russian)
[29]  Altazin, S., Clerc, R., Gwoziecki, R., et al. (2014) Physics of the Frequency Response of Rectifying Organic Schottky Diodes. Journal of Applied Physics, 115, Article ID: 064509.
[30]  Abdurakhmanov, G. (2018) Some Problems of Physics of the Thermoelectric Phenomena. Uzbek Journal of Physics, 20, 1-8.
[31]  Abdurakhmanov, G., Vokhidova, G. and Mamatkulova, S. (2018) Some Physical Aspects of Solar Energy Conversion. Uzbek Journal of Physics, 20, 173-183. (In Russian)


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413