All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...
Health  2023 

Current HPV Vaccination Strategies in Brazil

DOI: 10.4236/health.2023.152009, PP. 107-121

Keywords: Brazil, HPV, Vaccine Update, Cervical Cancer

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and treatable malignancies, however, it still has high incidence and mortality rates, especially in less developed countries. For Brazil, the estimate is more than 16,000 new cases and more than 6000 deaths annually. Despite this, vaccines against HPV (responsible for cervical cancer) are effective and promote a significant decrease in infections and neoplastic lesions of the cervix. As recommended by the World Health Organization, girls aged 9 to 14 should be vaccinated before becoming sexually active. Although the vaccine was developed in 2006, in Brazil immunization only started to be carried out in 2014, initially only for girls between 9 and 11 years old. The present work is an integrative review, with the objective of explaining the current situation of vaccination against HPV throughout the country. Using the PubMed, MED-LINE and Google Scholar databases, a search for scientific articles was carried out during the year 2022, using the descriptors “Vaccine”, “HPV” and “Brazil”, simultaneously selecting 17 articles. The Brazilian recommendations for vaccination against HPV have undergone several strategic changes over time, in the following points: age group and gender of the target population, major site of application of vaccines and number of doses to be applied. Currently, in Brazil, the recommendation for vaccination against HPV is neutral in gender, between 9 and 14 years old and in immunosuppressed people up to 45 years old, with a vaccination schedule of 2 doses with an interval of 6 months between them, and 3 doses for those from 15 years and immunocompromised individual (0 - 2 - 6 months). The tetravalent vaccine offered by public funding continues to be applied at health centers, despite several favorable criticisms of the return of application in schools. Even though the vaccine is available free of charge, studies point to the difficulty in achieving and maintaining vaccination coverage, especially for the second dose. Among the factors that impede success, they cite illiteracy in health generated mainly by social inequality and the lack of educational actions by the government, demonstrating the need to plan effective strategies in this regard.

References

[1]  Pereira da Veiga, C.R., Semprebon, E., da Silva, J.L., Lins Ferreira, V. and Pereira da Veiga, C. (2020) Facebook HPV Vaccine Campaign: Insights from Brazil. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 16, 1824-1834.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1698244
[2]  Bacha, E., dos Santos, A.A. and de Carvalho, L.W.T. (2022) Construction and Evaluation of an Educational Product: “HPV: Concept and Prevention”. Creative Education, 13, 2786-2798.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2022.139176
[3]  Fedrizzi, E.N. (2019) Why Is the Nonavalent HPV Vaccine So Important for Brazil? DST-Jornal Brasileiro de Doencas Sexualmente Transmissiveis, 31, 43-44.
[4]  Colpani, V., Soares Falcetta, F., Bacelo Bidinotto, A., Kops, N.L., Falavigna, M., Serpa Hammes, L., et al. (2020) Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE, 15, e0229154.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229154
[5]  Padilha, A.R.N., Resende, M.A.A., dos Reis, M.D., de Oliveira, V.C, de Oliveira, P.P. and de Carvalho, N.M. (2022) Reasons for Parents and Guardians for Non-Adherence to Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination: Scoping Review. Research, Society and Development, 11, e28211124792.
https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i1.24792
[6]  Ferreira, H.L.O.C., Siqueira, C.M., de Sousa, L.B., Nicolau, A.I.O., Lima, T.M., de Souza Aquino, P., et al. (2022) Effect of Educational Intervention for Compliance of School Adolescents with the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 56, e20220082.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-220x-reeusp-2022-0082en
[7]  De Lima Moura, L., Codeco, C.T. and Luz, P.M. (2021) Cobertura da vacina papilomavírus humano (HPV) no Brasil: Heterogeneidade espacial e entre coortes etárias. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 24, e210001.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720210001
[8]  Wendland, E.M., et al. (2021) Effectiveness of a Universal Vaccination Program with an HPV Quadrivalent Vaccine in Young Brazilian Women. Vaccine, 39, 1840-1845.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.02.040
[9]  Luvisaro, B.M.O., da Silva, T.P.R., da Silva, T.M.R., Lachtim, S.A.F., Souza, J.F.A. and Matozinhos, F.P. (2022) Environmental Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage in Adolescents: 2016-2020 Analysis. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 30, e3804.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.6285.3804
[10]  Passos, M.Z., da Silva-Filho, A.L., Brandao, W.C., Meinberg, M.F. and Werneck, R.A. (2022) Evaluating the Quality of HPV Vaccine-Related Information on the Portuguese Internet. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 18, Article ID: 2104571.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2022.2104571
[11]  Teixeira, J.C. and Roteli-Martins, C.M. (2021) HPV Vaccination and Screening with High-Performance Test: Brazilian Evidence. RBGO Gynecology & Obstetrics, 43, 885-886.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740953
[12]  Nogueira-Rodrigues, A., Flores, M.G., Macedo Neto, A.O., et al. (2022) HPV Vaccination in Latin America: Coverage Status, Implementation Challenges and Strategies to Overcome It. Frontiers in Oncology, 12, Article 984449.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.984449
[13]  Gomes, J.M., Silva, B.M., de Sousa Santos, E.F., Kelly, P.J., de Souza Costa, A., Takiuti, A.D., et al. (2020) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and the Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine among Brazilian Adolescents and Parents: Factors Associated with and Divergences in Knowledge and Acceptance. PLOS ONE, 15, e0241674.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241674
[14]  Da Silva, T.M.R., Nogueira de Sá, A.C.M.G., Beinner, M.A., Abreu, M.N.S., Matozinhos, F.P., Sato, A.P.S. and Vieira, E.W.R. (2022) Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Brazil. International Journal of Public Health, 67, Article ID: 1604224.
https://doi.org/10.3389/ijph.2022.1604224
[15]  Biselli-Monteiro, M., Ferracini, A.C., Sarian, L.O. and Derchain, S.F.M. (2020) Influence of Gender and Undergraduate Course on the Knowledge about HPV and HPV Vaccine, and Vaccination Rate among Students of a Public University. RBGO Gynecology & Obstetrics, 42, 96-105.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701466
[16]  da Silva Santos, A.C., Silva, N.N.T., Carneiro, C.M., Coura-Vital, W. and Lima, A.A. (2020) Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and HPV Immunization Dropout Rate among Brazilian Adolescent Girls and Their Guardians. BMC Public Health, 20, Article No. 301.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8410-9
[17]  Torres, K.L., de Melo Farah Rondon, H.H., Martins, T.R., Martins, S., Ribeiro, A., Raiol, T., et al. (2021) Moving towards a Strategy to Accelerate Cervical Cancer Elimination in a High-Burden City—Lessons Learned from the Amazon City of Manaus, Brazil. PLOS ONE, 16, e0258539.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258539
[18]  Teixeira, J.C., et al. (2021) School-Based HPV Vaccination: The Challenges in a Brazilian Initiative. RBGO Gynecology & Obstetrics, 43, 926-931.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1740279
[19]  Ferreira, G.R.O.N., da Silva Formigosa, J.A., de Carvalho Lira, A.L.B., et al. (2022) The Family Health Strategy Influence on the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Acceptance in a Peripheral Community of the Brazilian Amazon Region. Health Equity, 6, 852-861.
https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2022.0009
[20]  De Alcantara Gomes Silva, I., et al. (2022) Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus in Brazilian Schoolchildren: National Survey of School Health, 2019. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 30, e3834.
https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.6296.3834
[21]  de Oliveira, P.S., Goncalves, C.V., Watte, G. and da Costa, J.S.D. (2021) Vaccination Coverage against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Associated Factors in Female Academics from a University in Southwestern Goiás, Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 55, Article No. 65.
https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2021055003144
[22]  Faisal-Cury, A., Levy, R.B., Tourinho, M.F., Grangeiro, A. and Eluf-Neto, J. (2020) Vaccination Coverage Rates and Predictors of HPV Vaccination among Eligible and Non-Eligible Female Adolescents at the Brazilian HPV Vaccination Public Program. BMC Public Health, 20, Article No. 458.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08561-4
[23]  Ministério da Saúde (2022) Vacina HPV quadrivalente é ampliada para homens de até 45 anos com imunossupressao.
https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2022/julho/vacina-hpv-quadrivalente-e-ampliada-para-homens-de-ate-45-anos-com-imunossupressao
[24]  Sociedade Brasileira De Imunizacoes (SBIM) (2022) PNI anuncia extensao da oferta da vacina contra o HPV para meninos de 9 e 10 anos.
https://sbim.org.br/noticias/1730-pni-anuncia-extensao-da-oferta-da-vacina-contra-o-hpv-para-meninos-de-9-e-10-anos
[25]  Federacao Brasileira Das Associacoes De Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (FEBRASGO) (2022) Recomendacao da OMS sobre a dose única da vacina HPV: A realidade do Brasil.
https://www.febrasgo.org.br/pt/noticias/item/1458-recomendacao-da-oms-sobre-a-dose-unica-da-vacina-hpv-a-realidade-do-brasil
[26]  Corrêa, F.M., Migowski, A., de Almeida, L.M. and Soares, M.A. (2022) Cervical Cancer Screening, Treatment and Prophylaxis in Brazil: Current and Future Perspectives for Cervical Cancer Elimination. Frontiers in Medicine, 9, Article 945621.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.945621
[27]  Filho, D.S.T., Rocha, C.M.R., Bacha, E., Beltrao, M.C., de Barros, L.M., Andrade, á.N.M., Valadares, F.T. and Machado, Y.N. (2022) HPV Vaccine: Integrative Review of National and International Guidelines. Health, 14, 1287-1298.
https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2022.1412091
[28]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2022) Cervical Cancer.
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cervical-cancer

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413