All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

Psychological Archetypes

DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2023.121001, PP. 1-16

Keywords: Psychological Archetypes, Medusa, Persephone, It, Harley Quinn, Vampires, Jekyll and Hyde, Langoliers

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Background: Psychological archetypes are according to Carl Jung universal, archaic patterns and images that are derived from the collective unconscious and are the psychic counterpart of an instinct. Besides fundamental Jungian archetypes (persona, shadow, anima, animus, great mother, wise old man, hero, self and self-realization), there may be plenty of other psychological archetypes, existence of which can be deduced indirectly through stories, art, myths, religions or dreams. Purpose: This review article is to discuss the myths of Medusa, Hades and Persephone, as well as psychological archetypes present in art and stories. Methods: Several famous psychological archetypes deducted from myths, art and culture, are presented in this article and discussed from medical, psychological and philosophical perspective. Results: Interpretation of psychological archetypes deduced from here presented myths and works of art are posttraumatic embitterment disorder (Medusa), arranged marriage (Hades and Persephone), duality of human nature (Jekyll and Hyde), shared psychosis (Harley Quinn and Joker), fear, phobias, child abuse and childhood traumas (It), instinctive fear of clinical and psychic/emotional vampirism (vampires), the mystery of time (Langoliers). Conclusion: Psychological archetypes represent the powerful source of artistic and scientific inspiration originating from collective unconscious. Research, discovery and understanding of psychological archetypes may be of great value as these reveal universal human thoughts, fears, desires, tendencies, and problems being present throughout the history of humankind. Investigation of psychological archetypes may significantly improve our knowledge of human psychology.

References

[1]  Feist, J. and Feist, G.J. (2008) Theories of Personality. McGraw-Hill, New York, 104-111.
[2]  The Editors of GreekMythology (2021) Medusa: The Real Story of the Snake-Haired Gorgon. https://www.greekmythology.com/Myths/Creatures/Medusa/medusa.html
[3]  Linden, M. (2017) Verbitterung und Posttraumatische Verbitterungsstörung. Fort-schritte der Psychotherapie [Bitterness and Post-Traumatic Bitterness Disorder. Advances in Psychotherapy]. Hogrefe Verlag GmbH & Co., Göttingen.
https://doi.org/10.1026/02822-000
[4]  Linden, M., Rotter, M., Baumann, K. and Lieberei, B. (2007) Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder: Definition, Evidence, Diagnosis, Treatment. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Cambridge, MA.
[5]  Linden, M., Baumann, K., Lieberei, B., Lorenz, C. and Rotter, M. (2011) Treatment of Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Based on Wisdom Psychology and Hedonia Strategies. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80, 199-205. https://doi.org/10.1159/000321580
[6]  Baumann, K. and Linden, M. (2008) Weisheitstherapie [Wisdom Psychotherapy]. In: Linden, M. and Hautzinger, M., Eds., Verhaltenstherapiemanual [Behavior Therapy Manual], Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 416–422.
[7]  Oram, D.S., Khalifeh, H. and Howard, P.L.M. (2017) Violence against Women and Mental Health. The Lancet Psychiatry, 4, 159-170.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30261-9
[8]  Nilsson, M.P. (1967) Geschichte der Griechische Religion [History of Greek Religion]. Beck, München, 474-480.
[9]  Becker, C.M., Mirkasimov, B. and Steiner, S. (2017) Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes. Demography, 54, 1401-1423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-017-0591-1
[10]  Diamond-Smith, N.G., Dahal, M., Puri, M. and Weiser, S.D. (2020) Semi-Arranged Marriages and Dowry Ambivalence: Tensions in the Changing Landscape of Marriage Formation in South Asia. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22, 971-986.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2019.1646318
[11]  Saposnik, I.S. (1971) The Anatomy of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Studies in English Literature, 11, 715-731. https://doi.org/10.2307/449833
[12]  Hayes, A. (2022) What Is White-Collar Crime? Meaning, Types and Examples.
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/white-collar-crime.asp
[13]  Benezra, E.E. (1969) Duality of Human Nature. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 1456-1457. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.125.10.1456-b
[14]  Dini, P., Murakami, G., Timm, B., Taylor, R., Harkins, T. and Peterson, S. (1994) Mad Love: The Batman Adventures. DC Comics, New York.
[15]  Dini, P., Lopez, D., March, G., Morey, T., Wands, S. and DiDeo, D. (2009) Holiday Story: Gotham City Sirens. DC Comics, New York City.
[16]  Berrios, G.E. and Marková, I.S. (2014) Shared Pathologies. In: Bhugra, D. and Malhi, G.S., Eds., Troublesome Disguises: Managing Challenging Disorders in Psychiatry, John Wiley & Sons, London, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118799574.ch1
[17]  Arnone, D., Patel, A. and Tan, G.M. (2006) The Nosological Significance of Folie à Deux: A Review of the Literature. Annals of General Psychiatry, 5, Article No. 11.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-5-11
[18]  Dewhurst, K. and Todd, J. (1956) The Psychosis of a Association—Folie à deux. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 124, 451-459.
https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-195611000-00003
[19]  Mandal, A. (2019) Delusion Types.
https://www.news-medical.net/health/Delusion-Types.aspx
[20]  Bayer, T.A., Falkai, P. and Maier, W. (1999) Genetic and Non-Genetic Vulnerability Factors in Schizophrenia: The Basis of the “Two Hit Hypothesis”. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 543-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3956(99)00039-4
[21]  Fusar-Poli, P., Correll, C.U., Arango, C., Berk, M., Patel, V. and Ioannidis, J. (2021) Preventive Psychiatry: A Blueprint for Improving the Mental Health of Young People. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 20, 200-221. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20869
[22]  King, S. (1986) It. Viking, New York, NY.
[23]  Lehmann-Haupt, C. (1986) Books of the Times. The New York Times.
https://www.nytimes.com/1986/01/27/books/books-of-the-times-350786.html
[24]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2022) Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Part 3: A Review of the Literature. (Online Only)
https://store.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/d7/priv/sma14-4816_litreview.pdf
[25]  Storr, C.L., Ialongo, N.S., Anthony, J.C. and Breslau, N. (2007) Childhood Antecedents of Exposure to Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 119-125. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.1.119
[26]  Ramos, S. and Boyle, G.J. (2000) Ritual and Medical Circumcision among Filipino Boys. In: Denniston, G.C., Hodges, F.M. and Milos, M.F., Eds., Understanding Circumcision, Springer, Boston, MA, 253-270.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3351-8_14
[27]  Jeronimus, B.F., Ormel, J., Aleman, A., Penninx, B.W. and Riese, H. (2013) Negative and Positive Life Events Are Associated with Small but Lasting Change in Neuroticism. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2403-2415.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713000159
[28]  Perry, B.D. (2003) Effects of Traumatic Events on Children. The Child Trauma Academy. http://www.fa-sett.no/filer/perry-handout-effects-of-trauma.pdf
[29]  Schechter, D.S., Zygmunt, A., Coates, S.W., Davies, M., Trabka, K., McCaw, J., Kolodji, A. and Robinson, J. (2007) Caregiver Traumatization Adversely Impacts Young Children’s Mental Representations on the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Attachment & Human Development, 9, 187-205.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730701453762
[30]  Al-Krenawi, A., Graham, J.R. and Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2009) Analysis of Trauma Exposure, Symptomatology and Functioning in Jewish Israeli and Palestinian Adolescents. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 195, 427-432. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.050393
[31]  Wingo, A.P., Ressler, K.J. and Bradley, B. (2014) Resilience Characteristics Mitigate Tendency for Harmful Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in Adults with a History of Childhood Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Study of 2024 Inner-City Men and Women. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 51, 93-99.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.01.007
[32]  Dinwiddie, S., Heath, A.C., Dunne, M.P., Bucholz, K.K., Madden, P.A., Slutske, W.S., Bierut, L.J., Statham, D.B. and Martin, N.G. (2000) Early Sexual Abuse and Lifetime Psychopathology: A Co-Twin-Control Study. Psychological Medicine, 30, 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799001373
[33]  Nelson, E.C., Heath, A.C., Madden, P.A., Cooper, M.L., Dinwiddie, S.H., Bucholz, K.K., Glowinski, A., McLaughlin, T., Dunne, M.P., Statham, D.J. and Martin, N.G. (2002) Association between Self-Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adverse Psychosocial Outcomes: Results from a Twin Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 139-145. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.2.139
[34]  Roosa, M.W., Reinholtz, C. and Angelini, P.J. (1999) The Relation of Child Sexual Abuse and Depression in Young Women: Comparisons across Four Ethnic Groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 65-76.
[35]  Widom, C.S., DuMont, K. and Czaja, S.J. (2007) A Prospective Investigation of Major Depressive Disorder and Comorbidity in Abused and Neglected Children Grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 49-56.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.1.49
[36]  Arnow, B.A. (2004) Relationships between Childhood Maltreatment, Adult Health and Psychiatric Outcomes and Medical Utilization. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 10-15.
[37]  Levitan, R.D., Rector, N.A., Sheldon, T. and Goering, P. (2003) Childhood Adversities Associated with Major Depression and/or Anxiety Disorders in a Community Sample of Ontario: Issues of Co-Morbidity and Specificity. Depression and Anxiety, 17, 34-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.10077
[38]  Noll, J.G., Trickett, P.K., Susman, E.J. and Putnam, F.W. (2006) Sleep Disturbances and Childhood Sexual Abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 469-480.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsj040
[39]  Steine, I.M., Krystal, J.H., Nordhus, I.H., Bjorvatn, B., Harvey, A.G., Eid, J., Grønli, J., Milde, A.M. and Pallesen, S. (2012) Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 1827-1843.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260511430385
[40]  Widom, C.S. (1999) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Abused and Neglected Children Grown up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1223-1229.
https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.156.8.1223
[41]  Arehart-Treichel, J. (2005) Dissociation Often Precedes PTSD in Sexually Abused Children. Psychiatric News. https://doi.org/10.1176/pn.40.15.00400034a
[42]  Faller, K.C. (1993) Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues. The User Manual Series. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366162.pdf
[43]  Ascione, F.R., Friedrich, W.N., Heath, J. and Hayashi, K. (2003) Cruelty to Animals in Normative, Sexually Abused, and Outpatient Psychiatric Samples of 6-to 12-Year-Old Children: Relations to Maltreatment and Exposure to Domestic Violence. Anthrozoös: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People and Animals, 16, 194-212. https://doi.org/10.2752/089279303786992116
[44]  Ascione, F.R. (2005) Children and Animals: Exploring the Roots of Kindness and Cruelty. Purdue University Press, Princeton, NJ.
[45]  McClellan, J., Adams, J., Douglas, D., McCurry, C. and Storck, M. (1995) Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1245-1254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(95)00087-O
[46]  Friedrich, W.N., Urquiza, A.J. and Beilke, R.L. (1986) Behavior Problems in Sexually Abused Young Children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11, 47-57.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/11.1.47
[47]  Tyler, K.A. (2002) Social and Emotional Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Review of Recent Research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 567-589.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00047-7
[48]  Noll, J.G., Horowitz, L.A., Bonanno, G.A., Trickett, P.K. and Putnam, F.W. (2003) Revictimization and Self-Harm in Females Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse: Results from a Prospective Study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1452-1471. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260503258035
[49]  Bergh, R.L.V. and Kelly, J.F. (1964) Vampirism: A Review with New Observations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 11, 543-547.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1964.01720290085012
[50]  Coelho, J.T. (2018) Devil Worshipers Drink Girl’s Blood and Decorate “Satanic Altar” with Man’s Skull after Slaughtering Four. World News-Mirror Online.
[51]  DiGiulio, S. (2018) How to Spot (and Deal with) an Energy Vampire.
https://www.nbcnews.com/better/health/how-spot-deal-energy-vampire-ncna896251
[52]  Bernstein, A.J. (2000) Emotional Vampires. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
[53]  Borchard, T. (2009) 5 Emotional Vampires & How to Combat Them.
https://www.explorewhatsnext.com/therese-borchard-on-5-emotional-vampires-how-to-combat-them/
[54]  Orloff, J. (2011) The 5 Types of Emotional Vampires in Your Life. The 5 Kinds of Emotional Vampires You Could Encounter. Psychology Today.
[55]  Hall, C.S. and Nordby, V.J. (1999) A Primer of Jungian Psychology. Plume (Penguin Group), New York, NY.
[56]  Freud, S. (1923) The Ego and the Id. International Psycho-Analytischer Verlag, Vienna, W.W. Norton & Company, New York.
[57]  Jung, C.G. (1947) On the Nature of the Psyche. Collected Works. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
[58]  King, S. (2016) Four Past Midnight. Scribner, New York, NY.
[59]  Limburg, K., Watson, H.J., Hagger, M.S. and Egan, S.J. (2017) The Relationship between Perfectionism and Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 1301-1326. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22435

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413