All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Gamification in Education: A Study of Design-Based Learning in Operationalizing a Game Studio for Serious Games

DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2022.144010, PP. 115-131

Keywords: Gamification, Game-Based Learning, Pedagogy, Game Studio, Project Management, Team Structure

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The gamification of learning has proven educational benefits, especially in secondary education. Studies confirm the successful engagement of students with improved time on task, motivation and learning outcomes. At the same time, there remains little research on games and learning at the postsecondary level of education where traditional pedagogies remain the norm. Studies that have been conducted remain almost exclusively restricted to science programs, including medicine and engineering. Moreover, postsecondary subject-matter experts who have created their own gamified experiences often are forced to do so on an ad hoc basis either on their own, teaching themselves game engines, or with irregular support from experts in the field. But to ensure a well-designed, developed, and high-quality educational experience that leads to desired outcomes for a field, a sustainable infrastructure needs to be developed in institutions that have (or can partner with) others that have an established game design program. Moreover, such a design-based learning approach can be embedded within an existing studio model to help educate participants while producing an educational product. As such, this qualitative case study provides an example of the process of operationalizing a game design studio from pre-production through post-production, drawing from the design and development of the educational video game The Museum of the Lost VR (2022). The results, resources, and classification system presented are scalable and provide models for different sized institutions. Methods to develop a sustainable infrastructure are presented to ensure interdisciplinary partnerships across departments and institutions with game design programs to collaborate and create educational experiences that optimize user experience and learning outcomes.


[1]  Papadakis, S. and Kalogiannakis, M. (2017) Mobile Educational Applications for Children: What Educators and Parents Need to Know. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 11, 256-277.
[2]  Hossein-Mohand, H., Trujillo-Torres, J.M., Gómez-García, M., Hossein-Mohand, H. and Campos-Soto, A. (2021) Analysis of the Use and Integration of the Flipped Learning Model, Project-Based Learning, and Gamification Methodologies by Secondary School Mathematics Teachers. Sustainability, 13, Article No. 2606.
[3]  Dastyar, S. (2019) The Investigation of the Effectiveness of Participatory Learning Education on Students Motivation and Academic Achievement. International Journal of Advanced Research and Publications, 3, 165-170.
[4]  Squire, K. (2011) Video Games and Learning: Teaching and Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Columbia University, New York.
[5]  Adams, S.P. and Du Preez, R. (2022) Supporting Student Engagement through the Gamification of Learning Activities: A Design-Based Research Approach. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 27, 119-138.
[6]  Bundrage, C. and Mapson, K. (2022) Design and Development of an Online Professional Development Course on Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Using the ADDIE Model. In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), Morgantown, 248-256.
[7]  Kennette, L.N. and Beechler, M.P. (2019) Gamifying the Classroom. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching and Learning Journal, 12, 1-8.
[8]  Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O’Hara, K. and Dixon, D. (2011) Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts. Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, 7-12 May 2011, 2425-2428.
[9]  Reynaldo, C., Christian, R., Hosea, H. and Gunawan, A.A. (2021) Using Video Games to Improve Capabilities in Decision Making and Cognitive Skill: A Literature Review. Procedia Computer Science, 179, 211-221.
[10]  Granic, I., Lobel, A. and Engels, R. (2014) The Benefits of Playing Video Games. American Psychologist, 69, 66-78.
[11]  Al-Moteri, M., Alrehaili, A.A., Plummer, V., Yaseen, R.W., Alhakami, R.A., Al Thobaity, A. and Faizo, N.L. (2021) Rapid Visual Search Games and Accuracy of Students’ Clinical Observation Skills: A Comparative Study. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 55, 19-26.
[12]  Caroux, L. and Mouginé, A. (2022) Influence of Visual Background Complexity and Task Difficulty on Action Video Game Players’ Performance. Entertainment Computing, 41, Article ID: 100471.
[13]  Li, J., Zhou, Y. and Gao, X. (2022) The Advantage for Action Video Game Players in Eye Movement Behavior during Visual Search Tasks. Current Psychology, 1-10.
[14]  Laamarti, F., Eid, M. and El Saddik, A. (2014) An Overview of Serious Games. International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2014, Article ID: 358152.
[15]  Dörner, R., Göbel, S., Effelsberg, W. and Wiemeyer, J. (2016) Serious Games. Springer, Cham.
[16]  Hutson, J. and Fulcher, B. (2022) A Virtual Reality Educational Game for the Ethics of Cultural Heritage Repatriation. Games and Culture, 1-19.
[17]  Kim, S., Song, K., Lockee, B. and Burton, J. (2018) Gamification in Learning and Education: Enjoy Learning Like Gaming. Springer, Cham.
[18]  Wideman, H.H., Owston, R.D., Brown, C., Kushniruk, A., Ho, F. and Pitts, K.C. (2007) Unpacking the Potential of Educational Gaming: A New Tool for Gaming Research. Simulation & Gaming, 38, 10-30.
[19]  Krath, J., Schürmann, L. and Von Korflesch, H.F. (2021) Revealing the Theoretical Basis of Gamification: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Theory in Research on Gamification, Serious Games and Game-Based Learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 125, Article ID: 106963.
[20]  Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, H. and Klevers, M. (2017) Fostering Development of Work Competencies and Motivation via Gamification. In: Mulder, M., Ed., Competence-Based Vocational and Professional Education, Springer, Cham, 795-818.
[21]  Adams, N., Little, T.D. and Ryan, R.M. (2017) Self-Determination Theory. In: Wehmeyer, M.L., et al., Eds., Development of Self-Determination through the Life-Course, Springer, Dordrecht, 47-54.
[22]  Deci, E.L., Koestner, R. and Ryan, R.M. (1999) A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627-668.
[23]  Dweck, C.S. and Leggett, E.L. (1988) A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
[24]  Elliott, E.S. and Dweck, C.S. (1988) Goals: An Approach to Motivation and Achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12.
[25]  Nicholls, J.G. (1984) Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, Subjective Experience, Task Choice, and Performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.
[26]  Hamstra, M.R.W., van Yperen, N.W., Wisse, B. and Sassenberg, K. (2014) Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Followers’ Achievement Goals. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 413-425.
[27]  Pekrun, R., Cusack, A., Murayama, K., Elliot, A.J. and Thomas, K. (2014) The Power of Anticipated Feedback: Effects on Students’ Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions. Learning and Instruction, 29, 115-124.
[28]  Seifert, T. (2004) Understanding Student Motivation. Educational Research, 46, 137-149.
[29]  Bandura, A. (1977) Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
[30]  Perron, B. and Wolf, M.J. (2009) The Video Game Theory Reader 2 (Vol. 2). Routledge, New York.
[31]  Callele, D., Neufeld, E. and Schneider, K. (2005) Requirements Engineering and the Creative Process in the Video Game Industry. 13th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering, Paris, 29 August-2 September 2005, 240-250.
[32]  Chandler, H.M. (2009) The Game Production Handbook. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Burlington.
[33]  Weitze, C.L. (2021) Recommendations for Learning through Educational Game Design: A Systematic Literature Review. In: European Conference on Games Based Learning, Academic Conferences International Limited, Reading, UK, 745-XII.
[34]  Politowski, C., Petrillo, F., Ullmann, G.C. and Guéhéneuc, Y.G. (2021) Game Industry Problems: An Extensive Analysis of the Gray Literature. Information and Software Technology, 134, Article ID: 106538.
[35]  Shave, L. (2022) Executive Management and Teams: A Hybrid Model for Workplace, Remote Working and Virtual Team Management. IQ: The RIMPA Quarterly Magazine, 38, 20-24.
[36]  Garro-Abarca, V., Palos-Sanchez, P. and Aguayo-Camacho, M. (2021) Virtual Teams in Times of Pandemic: Factors That Influence Performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, Article ID: 624637.
[37]  Colby, R. and Colby, R.S. (2019) Game Design Documentation: Four Perspectives from Independent Game Studios. Communication Design Quarterly Review, 7, 5-15.
[38]  Dimitriadou, A., Djafarova, N., Turetken, O., Verkuyl, M. and Ferworn, A. (2021) Challenges in Serious Game Design and Development: Educators’ Experiences. Simulation & Gaming, 52, 132-152.
[39]  Winget, M.A. and Sampson, W.W. (2011) Game Development Documentation and Institutional Collection Development Policy. Proceedings of the 11th Annual International ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, Ottawa, 13-17 June 2011, 29-38.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413