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Brain Tumor Segmentation of HGG and LGG MRI Images Using WFL-Based 3D U-Net

DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2022.1510022, PP. 241-260

Keywords: Brain Tumor Segmentation, 3D U-Net, WFL, HGG and LGG

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The semantic segmentation of a brain tumor is the essential stage in medical treatment planning. Due to the different characteristics of tumors, one of the main difficulties in image segmentation is the severe imbalance between classes. Also, a dataset with imbalanced classes is a common problem in multimodal 3D brain MRIs. Despite these problems, most studies in brain tumor segmentation are biased toward the overrepresented tumor class (majority class) and ignore the small size tumor class (minority class). In this paper, we propose an improved loss function Weighted Focal Loss (WFL), based on 3D U-Net to enhance the prediction of brain tumor segmentation. Using our proposed loss function (WFL) solves the imbalance between classes and the imbalance between weights by giving higher weights to the minority and lower weights to the majority. After assigning these weights to different pixel values, our work is able to resolve pixel degradation, which is one of the limitations of the loss function during model training. Based on our experiments, the proposed function (WFL) on the 3D U-Net model for high-grade glioma (HGG) and low-grade glioma (LGG) in the Brain Tumor Segmentation Challenge (BraTS) 2019 dataset has shown promising results for tumor core (TC), whole tumor (WT) and enhanced tumor (ET) with average dice scores of HGG: 0.830, 0.913, 0.815 and Dice scores of LGG for TC: 0.731, WT: 0.775 and ET: 0.685. Moreover, we deployed our training on BraTS 2020 in which we obtained mean Dice scores of HGG: TC: 0.843, WT: 0.892, ET: 0.871 and Dice scores of LGG: 0.7501, 0.7985, 0.6103 for TC, WT and ET, respectively.


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