All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Relative Articles


Mistrust in Dysfunction, Culture in/Sensitivity in Era of Pandemics: How Ibibio People of South Eastern Nigeria Responded to 1918-1921 Influenza Vis a Vis COVID-19 Pandemics

DOI: 10.4236/sm.2022.121001, PP. 1-19

Keywords: Influenza, Epistemic, Ecological, Intervention, COVID-19, Response, Colonial

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


In an exhibition of social responsibility against COVID-19 outbreak, almost all governments of African nations have taken proactive measures to close down potential sources of the virus transmission to the public. In this paper we engaged sequential text interpretation of historical and current health documents, professional publications and media reportage on the post WW1 influenza and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemics in order to fully explore the tensions and issues arising from the responses of Indigenous Ibibio people of South Eastern Nigeria to the pandemics’ interventions. We employed anti-colonial theory and the philosophical trajectory of African traditional ecological knowledge, TEK to investigate the two devastating global pandemics. We observed that the Ibibio people’s responses to intervention efforts of the ruling authorities and NGOs in the two pandemics were shaped by suspicion, and as the world is urgently turning into a densely populated global village, trust has become an essential commodity with respect to ways professional multinational corporations and agencies deal with the Indigenous peoples around the world. Non-toxic, unbiased, and accurate information from media reportage is sine qua none in fostering trust and restoring the confidence of Indigenous communities in Western science, a condition marred by misinformation and experiences of racism and stereotype. We argued that a multi-world approach to understanding and finding solutions to global socio-cultural, and health problems will provide sustained benefit to the multicultural society the world has become. We conclude by advising that the continents of the world share a collection of diverse Indigenous peoples’ epistemic saliencies (lived experiences). The unique ecological approach each of the Indigenous communities has lived with over the centuries constitutes their identity with the ecological environment. To gain the trust and


[1]  247ureports (2020, June 10). Infectious Disease Bill: CNPP Demands Investigation of Reps Principal Officers. 247ureports.
[2]  Abaraonye, F. I. (1998). Gender and Politics in Ibibioland, 1900-1980. Doctorial Dissertation, University of Lagos.
[3]  Baxter, J. (2008). Dust from Our Eyes: An Unblinkered Look at Africa. Wolsak and Wynn Publishers.
[4]  Belanger, Y. (2018). Ways of Knowing: An Introduction to Native Studies in Canada (3rd ed.). University of Lethbridge.
[5]  Busari, S., & Wojazer, B. (2020, April 7). French Doctors’ Proposal to Test Covid-19 Treatment in Africa Slammed as ‘Colonial Mentality’. CNN.
[6]  Dei, G. (Ed.) (2011). History as a Tool for Colonialism. In G. Dei (Ed.), Teaching Africa: Towards a Transgressive Pedagogy: A Reader (pp. 1-13). Springer.
[7]  Eguegu, O. (2020, April 6). Why Are So Many Nigerian Doctors and Journalists Upset About a Chinese Medical Team Coming to Advise on COVID-19? China Africa Project.
[8]  Fanon, F. (1952). Black Skin White Masks. Grove Press.
[9]  Henningsen, P. (2014, October 18). Did Ebola Really Jump from African Fruit Bats to Humans in 1976, or Has This Deadly Pathogen Emerged from a High-Level Bioweapons Lab? 21st Century Wire.
[10]  Isichei, E. (1983). A History of Nigeria. Longman Group Limited.
[11]  Jegede, A. S. (2007). What Led to the Nigerian Boycott of the Polio Vaccination Campaign? PLoS Medicine, 4, Article No. e73.
[12]  Lebakeng, T. (2010). Discourse on Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Sustainable Socio-Economic Development and the Challenge of the Academy in Africa. CODESRIA Bulletin, Nos. 1 & 2, 24.
[13]  Memmi, A. (1965). The Colonizer and the Colonized. Beacon Press.
[14]  Nathaniel, S. (2020). COVID-19: Expect Dead Bodies in the Street of African Countries, Melinda Gates Warns. A Snapshot of Melinda Gates in an Interview with CNN. Channels Television.
[15]  Nwalutu, M. O. (2015). Education and Schooling. In M. J. Shujaa, & K. J. Shujaa (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. Sage Publications Inc.
[16]  Ohadike, D. C. (1981). The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 and the Spread of Cassava Cultivation on the Lower Niger: A Study in Historical Linkages. Journal of African History, 22, 379-391.
[17]  Pauls, K. (2019, August 4). Canadian Lab’s Shipment of Ebola, Henipah Viruses to China Raises Questions. CBC News.
[18]  Phillips, H. (1984). ‘Black October’: The Impact of the Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918 on South Africa. University of Cape Town.
[19]  Reading Rockets (2021). WETA Public Broadcasting.
[20]  Ross, W. (2014, October 20). Ebola Crisis: How Nigeria’s Dr Adadevoh Fought the Virus. BBC News.
[21]  Sefa Dei, G. J. (2010). Teaching Africa: Towards a Transgressive Pedagogy. Springer.
[22]  Sefa Dei, G., & Kempf, A. (2006). Anti-Colonialism and Education: The Politics of Resistance. Sense Publishers.
[23]  Simms, A. (2009). Ecological Debt: Global Warming & the Wealth of Nations. Pluto Press.
[24]  Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. Zed Books Ltd.
[25]  WaThiong’o, N. (1986). Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. East African Educational Publishers.
[26]  Willinsky, J. (1998). Learning to Divide the World: Education at Empire’s End. University of Minnesota Press.
[27] (2012, August 21). A Conversation with Bill Gates: Population Growth.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413