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DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2021.114005, PP. 53-70

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Abstract:

This article has demonstrated the possibility of deriving an equivalent mathematical velocity expression while setting aside the concepts of displacement and time. The proposed velocity formula, better aligned with reality, allows a better understanding of the equivalence of matter and energy, which are comprised of the same type of basic particles. Why, then, is there a significant difference between matter and energy? This is because the combination of the basic particles is not the same. Basic particles are the basic unit of mass and energy, meaning mass and energy conservations are essentially the conservation of these basic particles. Electrons, photons, neutrons, protons, neutrinos, and other microscopic particles also consist of these basic particles. The basic particles are also the basic foundation of force: a basic particle force is the smallest force in the universe, implying that force is not continuous, but a basic particle force is the smallest unit of force. The total mass of a moving body increases with increasing velocities, and this added mass is composed of the basic particles provided by an external system. These basic particles are the foundation of the universe, and determine that physical concepts are vectors or scalars. Velocity, a vector, is the ratio between the basic particles. The concept of time is essentially academic. Although relativity equations may satisfy mathematical principles, they may represent a mathematical model with no physical meaning, not demonstrating objective physical facts.

References

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