All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

Deep Myofascial Kinetic Lines in Horses, Comparative Dissection Studies Derived from Humans

DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2021.111002, PP. 14-40

Keywords: Myofascial Lines, Deep Ventral Line, Deep Dorsal Line, Deep Adduction Line, Deep Abduction Line, Viscero-Somatic Connections

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Seven superficial myofascial kinetic lines have been described earlier in horses in a comparative dissection study to the human lines. The lines act as an anatomical basis for understanding locomotion, stabilization, and posture. Further dissections verified three profound equine lines comparable to those described in humans and a fourth line not described previously. Forty-four horses of different breed and gender were dissected, imaged and video recorded. The horses were euthanized due to reasons not related to this study. A Deep Ventral Line (DVL) very similar to that in the human was verified in these studies. The line spans from the insertion of the profound flexor tendon in the hindlimb to the base of the cranium and oral part of the cavities of the head. It includes the profound, hypaxial myofascial structures, the ventral coccygeal muscles, the psoas muscles, the diaphragm, the longus colli/capitis muscles and the ventral capital muscles. The inner lining of the pelvic, abdominal and thoracic cavities with all the organs, vessels and nerves are also included. The line is closely connected to the autonomic nervous system by the vagus nerve, the pelvic nerves, the sympathetic trunk and several of the prevertebral nerves and ganglia. The new line identified in this study, is a Deep Dorsal Line (DDL), which starts in the dorsal tail muscles. It comprises myofascial structures of the spinocostotransversal system from the tail to the head including the nuchal ligament. It connects to the dura mater and has a major role in controlling the motion and stabilization of the Columna vertebralis. Both the DDL and the DVL include the coccygeal myofascia and periosteum of the skull. Due to differences in biped and quadruped anatomy the Front Limb Adduction Line (FADL) and the Front Limb Abduction Line (FABL) differ from the human lines. The lines are identified as slings in the brachial and antebrachial regions. The FABL includes structures for abduction and internal rotation connecting to the Front Limb Retraction Line (FLRL), and the FADL structures of adduction and external rotation in close proximity to the Front Limb Protraction Line (FLPL). The front limb lines support the movement of the front limb around the “thoraco-scapula pivot joint” medially at the level of the upper third of the scapula. The DVL identified in this study is similar to the human DFL whereas the front limb lines differ somewhat from the deep human arm lines due to differences in bi- and quadruped anatomy and biomechanics. We have identified and described this new equine

References

[1]  Elbrønd, V.S. and Schultz, R.M. (2015) Myofascia—The Unexplored Tissue: Myofascial Kinetic Lines in Horses, a Model for Describing Locomotion Using Comparative Dissection Studies Derived from Human Lines. Medical Research Archives, No. 3.
https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v0i3.125
[2]  Myers, T.M. (2013) Myofascial Trains. Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists. 3rd Edition, Elsevier Health Sciences, London.
[3]  Procacci, P. and Maresca, M. (1999) Referred Pain from Somatic and Visceral Structures. Current Review of Pain, 3, 96-99.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-999-0032-y
[4]  Giamberardino, M.A., Affaitati, G. and Costantini, R. (2006) Referred Pain from Internal Organs. In: Cervero, F. and Jensen, T.S., Eds., Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Chapter 24, 343-361.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0072-9752(06)80028-X
[5]  Vecchiet, L.J. and Giamberardino, M.A. (1999) Referred Muscle Pain: Clinical and Pathophysiologic Aspects. Current Review of Pain, 3, 489-498.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-999-0077-y
[6]  Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, á., González-González, C., Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, J. and Piña-Pozo, F. (2019) Visceral Origin: An Underestimated Source of Neck Pain. A Systematic Scoping Review. Diagnostics (Basel), 9, 186.
https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040186
[7]  Silva, A.C.O., Biasotto-Gonzalez, D.A. and Oliveira, F.H.M. (2018) Effect of Osteopathic Visceral Manipulation on Pain, Cervical Range of Motion, and Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain and Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study. Evidence-Based Complementary Alternative Medicine, 2018, Article ID: 4929271. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4929271
[8]  Kellgren, J. (1939) On the Distribution of Pain Arising from Deep Somatic Structures with Charts of Segmental Pain Areas.
[9]  Garrison, D.W., Chandler, M.J. and Foreman (1992) Viscerosomatic Convergence onto Feline Spinal Neurons from Esophagus, Heart and Somatic Fields: Effects of Inflammation. Pain, 49, 373-382.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(92)90245-7
[10]  Gwirtz, P., Dickey, J., Vick, D., Williams, M. and Foresman, B. (2007) Viscerosomatic Interaction Induced by Myocardial Ischemia in Conscious Dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985), 103, 511-517.
https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00495.2006
[11]  MacKenzie, J. (1893) Some Points Bearing on the Association of Sensory Disorders and Visceral Disease. Brain, 16, 321-353.
https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/16.3.321
[12]  Beal, M.C. (1985) Viscerosomatic Reflexes: A Review. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 85, 786-801.
[13]  Stecco, C., Sfriso, M.M., Pozionato, A., Rambaldo, A., Albertin, G., Macchi, V. and De Caro, R. (2017) Microscopic Anatomy of the Visceral Fasciae. Journal of Anatomy, 231, 121-128.
https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.12617
[14]  Denoix, J.-M. and Paillioux, J.-P. (2009) Physical Therapy and Massage for the Horse. Biomechanics, Exercise, Treatment. 2nd Edition, Manson Publishing, Hong Kong.
[15]  Nickel, R., Schummer, A. and Seiferle, E. (1968) Lehrbuch der Anatomie der Haustiere, Band I, Bewegungsapparat. Paul Parey, Berlin, Hamburg.
[16]  König, H.E. and Liebich, H.-C. (2014) Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals. Textbook and Colour Atlas. 6th Edition, Schattauer, Stuttgart.
[17]  Yucesoy, C.A. and Huijing, P.A. (2007) Substantial Effects of Epimuscular Myofascial Force Transmission on Muscular Mechanics Have Major Implications on Spastic Muscle and Remedial Surgery. Journal of Electromyographic Kinesiology, 17, 664-79.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.02.008
[18]  Carvalhais, V.O.D.C., Ocarino, J.D.M., Araújo, V.L., Souza, T.R., Silva, P.L.P. and Fonseca, S.T. (2013) Myofascial Force Transmission between the Latissimus Dorsi and Gluteus Maximus Muscles: An in Vivo Experiment. Journal of Biomechanics, 46, 1003-1007.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.11.044
[19]  Tian, M., Herbert, R.D., Hoang, P., Gandevia, S.C. and Bilston, L.E. (2012) Myofascial Force Transmission between the Human Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscles during Passive Knee Motion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 113, 517-523.
https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00111.2012
[20]  Huijing, P.A., Yamann, A., Ozturk, C. and Yucesoy, C.A. (2011) Effects of Knee Joint Angle on Global and Local Strains within Human Triceps Surae Muscle: MRI Analysis Indicating in Vivo Myofascial Force Transmission between Synergistic Muscles. Surgical Radiological Anatomy, 33, 869-879.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-011-0863-1
[21]  Yucesoy, C.A., Baan, G. and Huijing, P.A. (2010) Epimuscular Myofascial Force Transmission Occurs in the Rat between the Deep Flexor Muscles and Their Antagonistic Muscles. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20, 118-126.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.09.012
[22]  Huijing, P.A. and Baan, G.C. (2008) Myofascial Force Transmission via Extramuscular Pathways Occurs between Antagonistic Muscles. Cells Tissues Organs, 188, 400-414.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000118097
[23]  Kjær, M., Langberg, H., Heinemeier, K., Bayer, M.L., Hansen, M., Holm, L., Doessing, S., Kongsgaard, M., Krogsgaard, M.R. and Magnusson, S.P. (2009) From Mechanical Loading to Collagen Synthesis, Structural Changes and Function in Human Tendon. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19, 500-510.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00986.x
[24]  Schleip, R., Klingler, W. and Lehmann-Horn, F. (2006) Fascia Is Able to Contract in Smooth Muscle-Like Manner and Thereby Influence Musculoskeletal Mechanics. Proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Biomechanics, Medimond International Proceedings, Munich, 51-54.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(06)84993-6
[25]  Schleip, R., Naylor, I.L., Ursu, D., Meizer, W., Zorn, A., Wilke, H.-J., Lehmann-Horn, F. and Klingler, W. (2006) Passive Muscle Stiffness May Be Influence by Active Contractility of Intramuscular Connective Tissue. Medical Hypotheses, 66, 66-71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2005.08.025
[26]  Van De Water, L., Varney, S. and Tomasek, J.J. (2013) Mechanoregulation of the Myofibroblast in Wound Contraction, Scarring, and Fibrosis: Opportunities for New Therapeutic Intervention. Advances in Wound Care (New Rochelle), 2, 122-141.
https://doi.org/10.1089/wound.2012.0393
[27]  Klingler, W., Velders, M., Hoppe, K., Pedro, M. and Schleip, R. (2014) Clinical Relevance of Fascial Tissue and Dysfunctions. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 18, 439.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-014-0439-y
[28]  Magnusson, S.P., Langberg, H. and Kjaer, M. (2010) The Pathogenesis of Tendinopathy: Balancing the Response to Loading. Nature Reviews Rheumatology, 6, 262-268.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2010.43
[29]  Neuberger, A. and Slack, H.G. (1953) The Metabolism of Collagen from Liver, Bone, Skin and Tendon in the Normal Rat. Biochemical Journal, 53, 47-52.
https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0530047
[30]  Staubesand, J. and Li, Y. (1996) Zum Feinbau der Fascia cruris mit besonderer Berücksichtigung epiund intrafaszialer Nerven. Manuelle Medicin, 34, 196-200.
[31]  Benetazzo, L., Bizzego, A., De Caro, R., Frigo, G., Guidolin, D. and Stecco, C. (2011) 3D Reconstruction of the Crural and Thoracolumbar Fasciae. Surgical and Radiological Anatomy, 33, 855-862.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-010-0757-7
[32]  Stecco, C., Pavan, P.G., Porzionato, A., Macchi, V., Lancerotto, L., Carniel, E.L., Natali, A.N. and De Caro, R. (2009) Mechanics of Crural Fascia: From Anatomy to Constitutive Modelling. Surgical and Radiological Anatomy, 31, 523-529.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-009-0474-2
[33]  Ahmed, W., Kulikowska, M., Ahlmann, T., Berg, L.C., Harrison, A.P. and Elbrønd, V.S. (2019) A Comparative Multi-Site and Whole-Body Assessment of Fascia in the Horse and Dog: A Detailed Histological Investigation. Journal of Anatomy, 235, 1065-1077.
https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13064
[34]  Stecco, C., Stern, R., Porzionato, A., Macchi, V., Masiero, S., Stecco, A. and De Caro, R. (2011) Hyaluronan within Fascia in the Etiology of Myofascial Pain. Surgical Radiology and Anatomy, 33, 891-896.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00276-011-0876-9
[35]  Stecco, C., Fede, C., Macchi, V., Porzionato, A., Petrelli, L., Biz, C., Stern, R. and De Caro, R. (2018) The Fasciacytes: A New Cell Devoted to Fascial Gliding Regulation. Clinical Anatomy, 31, 667-676.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ca.23072
[36]  Lee, J.Y. and Spicer, A.P. (2000) Hyaluronan: A Multifunctional, megaDalton, Stealth Molecule. Current Opinion in Cell Biology, 12, 581-586.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00135-6
[37]  Budras, K.-D., Sack, W.O. and Röck, S. (2008) Anatomy of the Horse. 5th Edition, Schlüterche Verlagsgeselschaft GMBH and Co., Hannover.
[38]  Schaller, O. and Constantinescu, G. (2012) Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature. 3rd Edition, Enke Verlag, Stuttgart.
[39]  Stubbs, N.C., Riggs, C.M., Hodges, P.W., Jeffcott, L.B., Hodgson, D.R., Clayton, H.M. and McGowan, C.M. (2010) Osseous Spinal Pathology and Epaxial Muscle Ultrasonography in Thoroughbred Racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42, 654-661.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00258.x
[40]  Stubbs, N.C., Hodges, P.W., Jeffcott, L.B., Cowin, G., Hodgson, D.R., McGowan, C.M., Stubbs, N.C., et al. (2010) Functional Anatomy of the Caudal Thoracolumbar and Lumbosacral Spine in the Horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 38, 19-26.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05575.x
[41]  Elbrønd, V.S. and Schultz, R. (2019) Equine Myodural Bridges—An Anatomical and Integrative/Functional Description of Myodural Bridges along the Spine of Horses: Special Focus on the Atlanto-Occipital and Atlanto-Axial Regions. Medical Research Archives, 7, 11.
[42]  Stubbs, N.C., Kaiser, L.J., Hauptman, J. and Clayton, H.M. (2011) Dynamic Mobilisation Exercises Increase Cross Sectional Area of Musculus Multifidus. Equine Veterinary Journal, 43, 522-529.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00322.x
[43]  Hyytiäinen, H.K., Mykkänen, A.K., Hielm-Björkman, A.K., Stubbs, N.C. and McGowan, C.M. (2014) Muscle Fibre Type Distribution of the Thoracolumbar and Hindlimb Regions of Horses: Relating Fibre Type and Functional Role. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 56, Article No. 8.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-56-8
[44]  Van Weeren, P.R., McGowan, C. and Haussler, K.K. (2010) Science Overview: Development of a Structural and Functional Understanding of the Equine Back. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42, 393-400.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00207.x
[45]  Haussler, K., Hill, A., Puttlitz, C. and McIlwraith, W. (2007) Effects of Vertebral Mobilization and Manipulation on Kinematics of the Thoracolumbar Region. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 68, 508-516.
https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.68.5.508
[46]  Bramble, D.M. (2015) Axial-Appendicular Dynamics and the Integration of Breathing and Gait in Mammal. American Zoologist, 29, 171-186.
https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/29.1.171
[47]  Coffey, J.C. and O’Leary, D.P. (2016) The Mestentery: Structure, Function, and Role in Disease. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1, 238-247.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30026-7
[48]  Hyttel, P., Sinowatz, F. and Vejlsted, M. (2010) Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology. Saunders, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
[49]  Netter, F.H. (2006) Atlas of Human Anatomy. 4th Edition, Saunders, Elsevier, Philadelphia.
[50]  Rhodin, M., Johnston, C., Holm, K.R., Wennerstrand, J. and Drevemo, S. (2005) The Influence of Head and Neck Position on Kinematics of the Back in Riding Horses at the Walk and Trot. Equine Veterinary Journal, 37, 7-11.
https://doi.org/10.2746/0425164054406928
[51]  Rhodin, M., Gómez Alvarez, C.B., Byström, A., Johnston, C., Van Weeren, P.R., Roepstorff, L. and Weishaupt, M.A. (2009) The Effect of Different Head and Neck Positions on the Caudal Back and Hindlimb Kinematics in the Elite Dressage Horse at Trot. Equine Veterinary Journal, 41, 274-279.
https://doi.org/10.2746/042516409X394436
[52]  Gómez Alvarez, C.B., Rhodin, M., Bobber, M.F., Meyer, H., Weishaupt, M.A., Johnston, C. and Van Weeren, P.R. (2006) The Effect of Head and Neck Position on the Thoracolumbar Kinematics in the Unridden Horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 36, 445-451.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2006.tb05585.x
[53]  Lashley, M.J., Nauwelaerts, S., Vernooij, J.C., Back, W. and Clayton, H.M. (2014) Comparison of the Head and Neck Position of Elite Dressage Horses during Top-Level Competitions in 1992 versus 2008. Veterinary Journal, 202, 462-465.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.08.028
[54]  Go, L., Barton, A.K. and Ohnesorge, B. (2014) Evaluation of Laryngeal Function under the Influence of Various Head and Neck Positions during Exercise in 58 Performance Horses. Equine Veterinary Education, 26, 41-47.
https://doi.org/10.1111/eve.12091
[55]  Kuryszko, J. and Ayczewska-Mazurkiewicz, S. (2004) Equine Masticatory Organ. Part III. Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics, 6, 25-30.
[56]  Terem, I., Ni, W.W., Goubran, M. and Rahimi, M.S. (2018) Revealing Sub-Voxel Motions of Brain Tissue Using Phase-Based Amplified MRI (aMRI). Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 80, 2549-2559.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27236
[57]  Hides, J., Gilmore, C., Stanton, W. and Bohlscheid, E. (2008) Multifidus Size and Symmetry among Chronic LBP and Healthy Asymptomatic Subjects. Manual Therapy, 13, 43-49.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2006.07.017
[58]  Wallwork, T.L., Stanton, W.R., Freke, M. and Hides, J.A. (2009) The Effect of Chronic Low Back Pain on Size and Contraction of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle. Manual Therapy, 14, 496-500.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2008.09.006
[59]  May-Davis, S. and Kleine, J. (2014) Variations and Implications of the Gross Anatomy in the Equine Nuchal Ligament Lamellae. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 34, 1110-1113.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2014.06.018

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413