All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

More...

Comparison of Bacterial Cross-Contamination among Broiler Carcasses between Commercial and Non-Commercial Processed System and Its Public Health Implications

DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2021.111001, PP. 1-13

Keywords: Bacterial, Broiler Carcasses, Commercial Processing, Non-Commercial Processing

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Objectives: This study aimed to conduct a comparative assessment of bacterial cross-contamination in commercial and non-commercial processing plants including associated risk factors for bacterial contamination. Study Design: This was analytic cross sectional survey on bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses between different processing systems. Introduction: Zambia, like most African and Asian Countries, still practices “live-open non-commercial broiler carcass processing systems” besides the “closed abattoir based systems”. However, shelf life, spoilage and hygiene levels have been postulated to vary based on the type of processing system. Live-open non-commercial processing systems are popular among majority consumers owing to their perceived “freshness”, compared to commercially dressed chickens. In between, consumers have to balance freshness and quality assurance. Ultimately, this becomes inert, remotely but an important public health issue. However, lack of empirical evidence on safety levels to guide consumer product selection leaves them to speculation. It is this need to close this gap that created an impetus for us to undertake this study. Methods: Biological samples were collected before carcass wash and after carcass wash alongside a structured questionnaire that gathered risk-associated data. Standard microbiological enumeration methods were used to isolate bacteria and enumerate contamination. Results: Broiler carcasses processed from “open” non-commercial systems were more contaminated (45.6%) than “closed-abattoir” commercially processed systems (35%). Escherichia coli were major contaminants (71.3%) and few Salmonella spices (typhi or para-typhi) in 1.3%. Risk analysis indicates washing (method) of carcasses at commercial systems was significantly more risky for contamination than non-commercial ones. Major sources of contamination were “distance from water sources”. Increased volume of slaughters per day (>15,000 birds) for commercial systems accounted for increased cross-contamination, particularly, distance from water source was a ma-jor risk factor for contamination.

References

[1]  Djekic, I., Smigic, N., Kalogianni, E.P., Rocha, A., Zamioudi, L. and Pacheco, R. (2014) Food Hygiene Practices in Different Food Establishments. Food Control, 39, 34-40.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.10.035
[2]  Mpundu, P., Munyeme, M., Zgambo, J., Mbewe, R.A. and Muma, J. (2019) Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination in Dressed Chickens at Lusaka Abattoirs. Frontiers in Public Health, 7, 19.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00019
[3]  CSO (2010) Census of Population and Housing National Report Available.
[4]  ZBMS (2015) Investment Opportunities in the Zambia Poultry Sector.
[5]  Munang’andu, H.M., Kabilika, S.H., Chibomba, O., Munyeme, M. and Muuka, G. (2012) Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia. Journal of Pathogens, 2012, Article ID: 520564.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/520564
[6]  Allen, V., Bull, S., Corry, J., Domingue, G., Jørgensen, F., Frost, J., et al. (2007) Campylobacter spp. Contamination of Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Relation to Flock Colonisation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 113, 54-61.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.07.011
[7]  Awadallah, M.A. and Suelam, I. (2014) Characterization of Virulent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Meat Products and Consumers in Cairo, Egypt. Veterinary World, 7, 788-793.
https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2014.788-793
[8]  Sousa, C. (2006) The Versatile Strategies of Escherichia coli Pathotypes: A Mini Review. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases, 12, 363-373.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-91992006000300002
[9]  Göransson, M., Nilsson, F. and Jevinger, Å. (2018) Temperature Performance and Food Shelf-Life Accuracy in Cold Food Supply Chains—Insights from Multiple Field Studies. Food Control, 86, 332-341.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.10.029
[10]  Meng, T., Florkowski, W.J., Sarpong, D.B., Chinnan, M.S. and Resurreccion, A. (2014) Consumer’s Food Shopping Choice in Ghana: Supermarket or Traditional Outlets? International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 17, 107-130.
[11]  Buncic, S. and Sofos, J. (2012) Interventions to Control Salmonella Contamination during Poultry, Cattle and Pig Slaughter. Food Research International, 45, 641-655.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.10.018
[12]  Chipabika, Mbewe, R.A. and Sikateyo, B. (2015) An Assessment of Food Hygiene Practices among Food Handlers in Restaurants in Kabwe District.
[13]  Mohamed-Noor, S., Shuaib, Y., Suliman, S. and Abdalla, M. (2012) Study of Microbial Contamination of Broilers in Modern Abattoirs in Khartoum State. Fascicle VI—Food Technology, 36, 74-80.
[14]  Kirk, M.D., Pires, S.M., Black, R.E., Caipo, M., Crump, J.A., Devleesschauwer, B., et al. (2015) World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. PLOS Medicine, 12, e1001921.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001921
[15]  GRZ (2009) Food Inspection Manual of the Food and Drugs Act 2009 of the Laws of Zambia.
[16]  Ahmed, H. (2014) Bacterial Contamination of Chicken Carcasses at Abattoir in Khartoum State-Sudan. Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Graduate Studies and Scientific, Khartoum.
[17]  Liggans, G.L., Boyer, M.S., Williams, L.B., Destromp, K.W. and Hoang, S.T. (2019) Food Safety Management Systems, Certified Food Protection Managers, and Compliance with Food Safety Practices Associated with the Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Foods at Restaurants. Journal of Food Protection, 82, 1116-1123.
https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-532
[18]  FS (2016) Australia New Zealand.
[19]  Zweifel, C., Althaus, D. and Stephan, R. (2015) Effects of Slaughter Operations on the Microbiological Contamination of Broiler Carcasses in Three Abattoirs. Food Control, 51, 37-42.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.002
[20]  Kirby, R.M., Bartram, J. and Carr, R. (2003) Water in Food Production and Processing: Quantity and Quality Concerns. Food Control, 14, 283-299.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-7135(02)00090-7
[21]  Straver, J., Janssen, A., Linnemann, A., Van Boekel, M., Beumer, R. and Zwietering, M. (2007) Number of Salmonella on Chicken Breast Filet at Retail Level and Its Implications for Public Health Risk. Journal of Food Protection, 70, 2045-2055.
https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-70.9.2045
[22]  Kaushik, P., Kumari, S., Bharti, S.K. and Dayal, S. (2014) Isolation and Prevalence of Salmonella from Chicken Meat and Cattle Milk Collected from Local Markets of Patna, India. Veterinary World, 7, 62-65.
https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2014.62-65
[23]  Garrity, G.M. (2012) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume One: The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.
[24]  Akabanda, F., Hlortsi, E.H. and Owusu-Kwarteng, J. (2017) Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Institutional Food-Handlers in Ghana. BMC Public Health, 17, 40.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3986-9
[25]  Giombelli, A. and Gloria, M. (2014) Prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on Broiler Chickens from Farm to Slaughter and Efficiency of Methods to Remove Visible Fecal Contamination. Journal of Food Protection, 77, 1851-1859.
https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-200
[26]  Shaheed, A., Orgill, J., Montgomery, M.A., Jeuland, M.A. and Brown, J. (2014) Why “Improved” Water Sources Are Not Always Safe. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92, 283-289.
https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.119594
[27]  Pearce, K.L., Rosenvold, K., Andersen, H.J. and Hopkins, D. (2011) Water Distribution and Mobility in Meat during the Conversion of Muscle to Meat and Ageing and the Impacts on Fresh Meat Quality Attributes—A Review. Meat Science, 89, 111-124.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.04.007
[28]  Pal, A., He, Y., Jekel, M., Reinhard, M. and Gin, K. (2014) Emerging Contaminants of Public Health Significance as Water Quality Indicator Compounds in the Urban Water Cycle. Environment International, 71, 46-62.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.05.025
[29]  Erickson, M.C., Liao, J., Cannon, J.L. and Ortega, Y.R. (2015) Contamination of Knives and Graters by Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens during Slicing and Grating of Produce. Food Microbiology, 52, 138-145.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2015.07.008
[30]  Birhanu, W., Weldegebriel, S., Bassazin, G., Mitku, F., Birku, L. and Tadesse, M. (2017) Assessment of Microbiological Quality and Meat Handling Practices in Butcher Shops and Abattoir Found in Gondar Town, Ethiopia. International Journal of Microbiological Research, 8, 59-68.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413