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-  2017 

Prognostic scores and biomarkers for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: how far have we come?

DOI: 10.2147/PHMT.S126001

Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia, children, scoring systems, biomarkers

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Abstract:

This article aimed to review the current prognostic and diagnostic tools used for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and highlight those potentially applicable in children with CAP. Several scoring systems have been developed to predict CAP mortality risk and serve as guides for admission into the intensive care unit. Over the years, clinicians have adopted these tools for improving site-of-care decisions because of high mortality rates in the extremes of age. The major scoring systems designed for geriatric patients include the Pneumonia Severity Index and the confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age >65 years (CURB-65) rule, as well as better predictors of intensive care unit admission, such as the systolic blood pressure, multilobar chest radiography involvement, albumin level, respiratory rate, tachycardia, confusion, oxygenation and arterial pH (SMART-COP) score, the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines, the criteria developed by Espa?a et al as well as the systolic blood pressure, oxygenation, age and respiratory rate (SOAR) criteria. Only the modified predisposition, insult, response and organ dysfunction (PIRO) score has so far been applied to children with CAP. Because none of the tools is without its limitations, there has been a paradigm shift to incorporate biomarkers because they are reliable diagnostic tools and good predictors of disease severity and outcome, irrespective of age group. Despite the initial preponderance of reports on their utility in geriatric CAP, much progress has now been made in demonstrating their usefulness in pediatric CAP

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