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-  2019 

Masculine/Instrumental and Feminine/Expressive Traits and Health, Well-Being, and Psychological Distress in Spanish Men

DOI: 10.1177/1557988319832749

Keywords: men’s health, masculine/instrumental trait, feminine/expressive trait, psychological well-being, psychological distress

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Many studies have explored the relationship between masculine norms and men’s health outcomes. There are few recent studies published on the relationship between masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive traits and men’s health and well-being. The current cross-sectional study examines whether masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive traits are associated to men’s health and well-being. Participants were 1,870 Spanish men, aged 21 to 64 years. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the masculine/instrumental trait and the feminine/expressive trait were positively related to men’s psychological well-being and self-rated health, so that men whose self-concept includes both masculine/instrumental and feminine/expressive characteristics presented greater psychological well-being and better self-rated health. The feminine/expressive trait was associated with lower psychological distress yet only in case of men with low social support. Self-esteem and social support were important predictors of men’s health, in such a way that men who had high self-esteem and social support reported higher ratings of psychological well-being, better self-rated health, and less psychological distress. The implications of these findings for promoting men’s health and well-being are discussed


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