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On the Galvanic Modification of Seawater

DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2019.94009, PP. 112-121

Keywords: Non-Stoichiometric Seawater, Band Gap, Fermi Level, Galvanic Cell, Electron Donor, Sodium Hypochlorite

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Chemical properties of seawater are studied at forced shifting of Fermi level εF? in the band gap of liquid water due to deviation of its composition H2O1z ( |?z< 1013 ) from the stoichiometric one ( z = 0 ). It is shown that the hypo-stoichiometric state ( z > 0 ) of seawater emerges when Fermi level is shifted to the local electron level ?εH3O of hydroxonium H3O+ in galvanic cell with the strongly polarized anode and the quasi-equilibrium cathode. Then, each εH3O is occupied by electron and hydroxonium radicals [H3O]? together with hydroxide anions [OH]?form in seawater hydrated electrons [(H2O)2] . The opposite hyper-stoichiometric state ( z < 0 ) of seawater is gotten in galvanic cell with the strongly polarized cathode and the quasi-equilibrium anode. Then, Fermi level is shifted to the local energy level εOH for removing electron from each hydroxide ion OH and forming hydroxyl radicals [OH] as strong oxidizers. It turned out that the ions of sodium and chlorine are connected into hydrates of sodium hypochlorite NaClO in this case.


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