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大气科学  2006 

中国雨日的气候变化

DOI: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2006.01.14

Keywords: 雨日,降水量,气候变化,趋势系数

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Abstract:

利用1954~2000年中国160站的资料,通过计算趋势系数等现代统计诊断方法,研究了中国年、季、月雨日的时、空特征和气候变化.指出,中国年雨日已经明显减少,而且雨日的减少比降水量的减少明显得多,平均每10年减少雨日3.8天.各季的雨日都是负趋势;季雨日平均每10年减少1天左右.夏季雨日减少最明显(统计检验最显著),秋季雨日减少最多(雨日减少天数多).雨日长期趋势变化有明显的空间变化,东北、华北、西南区的雨日减少是最多的,这些地区的雨日每10年减少7~10天.雨日的长期趋势变化与降水量的长期变化并不完全一致.雨日的负趋势与降水的负趋势比较,不但范围广,而且强度大(负趋势绝对值大).中国年降水量明显的负趋势仅位于华北(34°N~38°N,109°E~122°E),而雨日减少最多的地区是东北、华北、西南,范围比降水量大得多.季雨日的长期变化与季降水量的长期变化的差别很大.中国没有一个季节、一个测站的雨日有明显的正趋势变化,但是,降水量仅在秋季是大范围的负趋势,夏季降水量有些测站是明显正趋势,冬季降水量只是小范围的负趋势(冬季的降水量在增加),在冬季,东北仅是很小范围的降水量在减少,而雨日是大范围的明显减少.

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