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Checking Equivalence of Quantum Circuits and States

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Quantum computing promises exponential speed-ups for important simulation and optimization problems. It also poses new CAD problems that are similar to, but more challenging, than the related problems in classical (non-quantum) CAD, such as determining if two states or circuits are functionally equivalent. While differences in classical states are easy to detect, quantum states, which are represented by complex-valued vectors, exhibit subtle differences leading to several notions of equivalence. This provides flexibility in optimizing quantum circuits, but leads to difficult new equivalence-checking issues for simulation and synthesis. We identify several different equivalence-checking problems and present algorithms for practical benchmarks, including quantum communication and search circuits, which are shown to be very fast and robust for hundreds of qubits.


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