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Cryptosporidiosis in relation to CD4+ T- Lymphocyte counts of people living with HIV/AIDS in Jos, Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria

Keywords: Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , HIV/AIDS , CD4+ T- lymphocyte count , opportunistic parasites.

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Abstract:

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosisin relation to CD4+ T- lymphocyte counts of people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA) in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria using formol ether concentration andsaturated sodium chloride floatation techniques, modified Ziehl-Neelsenstaining method, history as well as clinical records of patients. A total of 280PLWHA attending voluntary counselling and testing as well as those receivinganti-retroviral drugs at the Faith Alive Foundation were sampled for thisstudy. Of this 66.0 (23.6%) were positive for cryptosporidiosis. Based on agegroup, prevalence rates were highest among 31-40 years 34.9% (23/66). Thiswas followed by 30.2% (13/43) among age group 11-20 years, while thelowest 10.0% (6/60) was recorded among 21-30. Females recorded a higherprevalence 25.0% (35/140) than males 22.1% (31/140) which was statisticallyinsignificant (p>0.05). Based on CD4+ count, the highest prevalence of 54.8%(23/42) was observed among patients with CD4+ count of ≤100. This wasfollowed by 501-600 with 40.0% (2/5), and the lowest prevalence of 9.3%(9/97) was observed among 201-300. Patients with diarrhoea wereassociated with the highest prevalence of cryptosporidiosis 23.6% (66/280),while the lowest prevalence of 2.1% (6/280) was observed among patientswith skin lesions. A total of 164 of the PLWHA showed one clinical sign or theother. Patients with diarrhoea recorded the highest prevalence of 83.3%(55/66) for cryptosporidiosis which was statistically significant. This wasfollowed by patients that presented vomiting 25.0% (4/16), while the lowestprevalence 11.1% (1/9) was observed among patients with oral thrush.Patients with both weight loss and rashes recorded zero prevalence for theinfection. This study confirms the opportunistic nature of Cryptosporidiumspecies among PLWHA and the association of these parasites in the diarrhoeaof this group of people.

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