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Efficiency of a constructed wetland for wastewaters treatment Eficiência de um "wetland" construído no tratamento de efluentes

Keywords: "wetland" construído , macrófitas aquáticas , eficiência de remo o , fluxo hidráulico , carga , constructed wetland , macrophyte , removal efficiency , hydraulic flow , loading rate

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AIM: The limnological characteristics of three different inlets water of the constructed wetland were compared in terms of concentration data and loading rate data and evaluated the removal efficiencies of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and thermotolerant coliforms (TC) by the treatment system; METHODS: The constructed wetland, measuring 82.8 m2 and with detention time of 1 hour and 58 minutes in the rainy season and 2 hours and 42 minutes in the dry one, was provided with four species, Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia cordata L. e Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. The sampling sites evaluated in the dry (D) and rainy (R) seasons were: inlet water from aquaculture farm = IA; inlet channel of rainwater runoff = IR; inlet from UASB wastewater = IB; outlet wetland = OUT. The conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, BOD5, total soluble and dissolved solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a and TC were analyzed. Multivariate analyses, such as Cluster and Principal Components Analysis (PCA), were carried out to group sampling sites with similar limnological characteristics; RESULTS: In the PCA with the concentration data was retained 90.52% variability of data, correlating the inlet IB with high concentrations of conductivity, alkalinity, pH, TC, nutrients and solids. Regarding loading rate data, the PCA was retained 80.9% of the data's total variability and correlated the sampling sites IA D, IA R and OUT R with higher BOD5, chlorophyll-a, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, total-P, temperature, oxygen and water flow. The highest removal efficiencies rates occurred in the dry season, mainly in concentration, with 78% of ammonia, 95.5% of SRP, 94.9% of TSS and 99.9% of TC; CONCLUSIONS: The wetland was highly efficacious in the removal of nutrients, solids, BOD5, chlorophyll-a and TC, mainly during the dry season. The system restructuring to increase the detention time during the rainy season and a pre-treatment of UASB wastewater, can increase the retention of nutrients and solids by wetland. OBJETIVO: Comparar as características limnológicas de três diferentes entradas de água no "wetland" construído, com dados de concentra o e carga, e avaliar a eficiência de remo o de nutrientes, sólidos, DBO5, clorofila-a e coliformes termotolerantes (TC) pelo sistema de tratamento; MéTODOS: No "wetland" construído, com área total de 82.8 m2 e tempo de residência de 1 hora e 58 minutos na esta o chuvosa e 2 horas e 42 minutos na seca, foram utilizadas as espécies Cyperus giganteus Vahl, Typha domingensis Pers., Pontederia

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