Links between violence, aggression, and mental illness are well documented. Despite this association, our current understanding of the factors for and optimal treatment of aggression remains limited. This lack of knowledge is alarming because nurses, particularly pediatric nurses who treat aggressive children, are frequent targets of patient aggression. Consequently, the aim of this article is to provide information regarding the concept of aggression in child patients, assessment of violent behavior, implementation of interventional treatment and a review of medical, psychological and social strategies which assist in the understanding of aggression and its clinical intervention. However, the etiology of aggression for the most part still remains a mystery.