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Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia

Keywords: Erosion 3D , sediment yield , Surfer , USLE

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Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D) in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed. Climatologydata from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R) factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor) with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEM)of Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor). Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor) and conservation practices (P-factor). Calculating soilloss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%), moderate (24.59%) and very low to low (49.18%). Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe toextreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated as having very less to moderate. On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one year’s sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor), rainfall erosivity (R- factor), soil erodibility (K-factor), slope length and steepness (LS-factor) were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah. The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.


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