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O rodki metodyczne jako forma doskonalenia pracy zawodowej nauczycieli rysunku i wychowania plastycznego (lata 1945-1989)

DOI: 10.2478/v10075-008-0005-9

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The first in-service teacher training centers were established in October 1945. Their purpose was to provide methodological assistance to teachers by organizing meetings, conferences, courses, reference library and art rooms depending on local and financial capabilities. These centers, also called teacher-training institutions or scientific-teaching institutions, did not form a single institutional organization. Therefore, in 1951 the Central Center for the Improvement of Educational Personnel (CODKO) was established with the headquarters in Warsaw. At the lower levels provincial and district centers for the improvement of educational personnel (WODKO and PODKO) were set up, and teaching methodology sections for particular subjects were organized. Their aim was to raise the teaching and ideological-political level of the teachers. The provincial centers were composed of subject sections. Heads of sections organized conferences and courses for teachers, inspected lessons, gave professional advice to instructors, and supervised schools in individual districts. An especially popular form of improvement of professional qualifications of drawing teachers were all kinds of training conferences. Longer, three-day conferences were organized by the CODKO in consultation with the Ministry of Education's Teacher Education Department. Shorter, one or two-day training conferences for drawing teachers were organized by provincial centers (WODKO). In the wake of the October 1956 transformations, the centers for the improvement of educational personnel were disbanded. They were replaced in 1957 by provincial and district in-service teacher training institutions for particular subjects, pre-school education and child care. After the next reorganization of in-service teacher training advisory institutions, the decree of the Minister of Education of 26 February 1960 established the Central In-Service Teacher Training Center (COM) in Warsaw, with subordinate regional and district inservice teacher training centers (OOM and POM). The activities of the OOMs for drawing and subsequently art education teachers consisted in assistance to teachers at school (advice, instructions), organization of teacher training conferences, courses, model lessons, etc., help in organizing art rooms, preparation of teaching materials, work with distinguished teachers; inspection over the accuracy and degree of implementation of theoretical assumptions in school practice, attempts at innovation in education through art; organization of mid-term and holiday courses. Especially conspicuous in their activities were inter alia art education sections in the OOMs in Warsaw, Koszalin, Wroc aw, and in Lublin. The exemplary activities for upgrading teacher's professional proficiency were also conducted in the POM in Zawiercie. In the 1970s a structural and curriculum reform of the education system was begun, including changes in the teacher improvement and advisory system. In June 1972 the Institu


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