an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) resulted in death of five female buffaloes and one domestic cow from the same farm. four buffaloes died 10-15 days after the appearance of clinical signs, while the fifth was euthanized in extremis, after similar clinical signs. histopathological lesions included multifocal histiolymphocytic epicarditis, myocarditis and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, which are commonly seen in cases of mcf in buffaloes. furthermore, lymphocytic vasculitis centered in the adventitia, with occasional fibrinoid necrosis in the muscular layer, was found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and brain. nucleotide sequencing of dna fragments from the central nervous system amplified by pcr revealed 98% similarity with known ohv-2 sequences from genbank. additionally, pcr analysis also revealed the presence of ohv-2 dna in the peripheral mononuclear blood cells of two clinically healthy buffaloes. the diagnosis of mcfwas based on epidemiological, clinical, gross and histopathological findings and on the results of a semi-nested pcr followed by nucleotide sequencing.