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The Applied Sociology of Tourism. The Up Skills of the Facilitator in the Italian Hospitality Industry  [PDF]
Nicolò Costa
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31001
Abstract: The sociology of tourism can be considered applied sociology. Therefore, it is necessary to ascertain the up skills of the sociologist in the process of tourism planning. The present paper refers to the idea of philosophic practitioner as a theoretical model and considers the sociologist as a facilitator of local tourism development. To this purpose, I discuss some topics and working tools that can be used when the sociologist is asked to help local stakeholders create significant involvement of the local community. In particular, I propose some self-assessment tools to be included in a tourism process centred on local participation. The paper focuses on fundamental questions concerning the techniques of bottom up regulation and the techniques to facilitate the passage from individualism to collaborative marketing in order to attract visitors suitable to the destination. The discussions are based inductively on tourism economic policies initiated inItalyto create collaboration between local institutions and enterprises aimed at integrating local resources (accommodation structures, transport, gastronomy, art and archaeology, etc.) and creating districts or systems of Made inItalyhospitality. The results indicate the sociologist of tourism as a facilitator of the collaborative partnership in support of the destination management. Many difficulties in creating tourism districts or systems are due to the absence of this type of professional figure.


Remembering Guido Martinotti as an Applied Sociologist to the Urban Mobilities and Local Community  [PDF]
Nicolò Costa
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.51006
Abstract: Guido Martinotti (M) has been one of the most relevant representatives of the applied sociology in Italy. The paper explains the origins ad developments of his ideas and researches on the links between urban transformations, tourism/hospitality and human mobilities and the application to the reform of the Italian academic system with the introduction of new courses on tourism (1999-2001). M and John Urry (U) are the pioneers in the new intersectorial and interdisciplinary approach to the study of tourism included in the broader context of advanced-economy cities, of the cities of information flows, intense exchanges and accelerated mobilities. M stressed a new direction in planning the local community and “hospitable city” between urban marketing and bottom-up regulation. In 1999 he pushed for the bill dealing with the nascent specialist degree in “Planning and Management of Tourism Systems” to be discussed in the Italian parliament, which in 2001 passed Law 135 establishing “local tourist systems”. M constructed the degree “Tourist Sciences and Local Community” (University of Milano Bicocca) with an educational mix of territorial, social, economic, business, literary and technological disciplines.
Minimal Repair Redundancy for Coherent Systemin its Signatures Representation  [PDF]
Vanderlei da Costa Bueno
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.11002
Abstract: In this paper we discuss how to maintain the signature representation of a coherent system through a minimal repair redundancy. In a martingale framework we use compensator transforms to identify how the components minimal repairs affect the order statistics in the signature representation.
A Coherent System Component Importance under Its Signatures Representation  [PDF]
Vanderlei da Costa Bueno
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2011.13019
Abstract: In this paper we discuss how to measure the component importance for a system in its signature representation. The definition is given in terms of compensator transform and it can be considered as a new formalization of the ideas presented by Bergman [1] in the context of system signature.
Clinical Psychophysical Assessment of the ON- and OFF-Systems of the Magnocellular and Parvocellular Visual Pathways  [PDF]
Marcelo Fernandes Costa
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.24043
Abstract: We developed a psychophysical paradigm for the clinical assessment of the contrast sensitivity (CS) mediated by the ON- and OFF-systems of the Magnocellular and Parvocellular pathways. We designed a stimulus considering two dimensions: two spatial frequencies (0.5 and 4.5 cpd) and two temporal rates of flicker (33 ms and 1500 ms). To evidence the ON- and OFF responses, the CS was measured for two polarities of light with luminance changes of 0.6 dB steps above and below the medium luminance grey background. We tested 38 healthy volunteers. The results shows that Magnocellular contrast sensitivity was higher than Parvocellular for the 33 ms flickering stimulus and the Parvocellular contrast sensitivity was higher than Magnocellular for 1500 ms stimuli. The reliability of the test was checked and confirmed. We concluded that the test performs a rapid measurement of the CS mediated by the ON and OFF systems of Magnocellular and Parvocellular pathways. It is useful in clinical protocols due to its high sensitivity and good reliability.
Digital Media in Archaeological Areas, Virtual Reality, Authenticity and Hyper-Tourist Gaze  [PDF]
Niccolò Costa, Marxiano Melotti
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21007
Abstract: The increasingly widespread use of digital media and “virtual reality” in archaeological areas seems to confirm the passage from the traditional tourist gaze to a new hyper-tourist gaze. Archaeological areas, incessantly re-presented in virtual reality, are already part of an ageographical city, characterized by new kinds of flows. The “virtual reality” of archaeological areas helps to “mark” a new phase in the economic and cultural history of tourism. A comparative presentation of some important activities carried out in these areas and the forms of multimedia communication related to archaeological tourism illustrates this trend. Notwithstanding the sceptical or conservative attitude of many institutions, this use of digital media does not generate cultural perplexity in the general public, which instead seeks and rewards the most innovative initiatives that best combine entertainment and educational aspects.
The Dog as a Risk Factor in Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Review  [PDF]
Francisco Assis Lima Costa
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2012.22006
Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Despite the euthanasia of dogs serologically positive, such action has not solved the endemic in Brazil. A risk area for VL involves the presence of the vector, the occurrence of canines and the record of human cases. The factors that have favored the persistence and spread of VL in Brazil are related to the predatory action of man on the environment, to the migratory movements and rural exodus, and a close coexistence of man and animals. Thus considering the epidemiological chain of VL, one fact seems clear: we do not know yet the true extent of the participation of the dog in the infectious cycle of VL. The clinical disease is an important indicator of the extent of the problem in an endemic area. The immunological events are complex and involve resistance and susceptibility to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). One aspect in CVL is that many symptomatic dogs underwent xenodiagnosis not infect the vector. In such cases the pattern recognition receptors CD11b+, TLR2+, and NO present higher values for dogs with results in immunohistochemistry of skin and xenodiagnosis negative (IMH-/XENO-) than dogs with immunohistochemistry in skin and xenodiagnosis positive (IMH+/XENO+), suggesting that innate immunity modulates the competence of the dog to infect the vector. The organic response in CVL varies from individual to individual and within the same individual, with a strong evidence of being organ-specific. Only 20% of asymptomatic dogs have parasites in the skin and 15% are able to recover from clinical signs and eliminate the parasites spontaneously. In this review, we analyze the epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and clinical, immunological and pathological conditions that can contribute to understanding the role of dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.
Reliability Measure of a Relay Parallel System under Dependence Conditions  [PDF]
Vanderlei da Costa Bueno
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A009
Abstract:

In a relay system of dependent components, the failure to close reliability measure is given as a Girsanov transform of the failure to open reliability measure.

Somatic Condition, Growth and Reproduction of Hake, Merluccius merluccius L., in the Portuguese Coast  [PDF]
Ana Maria Costa
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.31002
Abstract:

Weight/length relationships, condition factor, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, conversion factor for gutted to total weight and spawning season of hake in the Portuguese Coast (36.92 to 42.22 degrees latitude N; 9.61 to 6.07 degrees longitude W) were investigated for the first time, aiming to fill the lack of information on the biology of hake of the Portuguese waters. Data were obtained from commercial samples collected between 2005 and 2010 and pooled by month. Sex ratio observed in fish below 40 cmwas close to 1:1; females were always dominant above50 cmlength. All the parameters were analysed by month and by sex and by combined sexes. The relationships obtained for combined sexes for the entire period concerning the growth in length and weight were: total length-total weight =0.0038L3.172, total length-gutted weight =0.0052L3.059. The relationship total weight-gutted weight was Wt = 15.8112 + 0.8480Wg and the conversion factor was of 1.1524. The growth rate is similar for both sexes but different when based on total weight or gutted weight. The analysis of the condition factor, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and the monthly distribution of the maturity stages seem to indicate that hake from thePortugueseCoasthas a long spawning season, with three spawning peaks in March, May and August but the start of the spawning season seems independent of the fish length.

 

Escherichia coli in seafood: A brief overview  [PDF]
Renata Albuquerque Costa
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.43A060
Abstract:

Considering the importance of researching the bacteriological quality of seafood, the following study aimed to make a brief overview on the occurrence of Escherichia coli in marine fish and shellfish, and to discuss the sanitary importance that the isolation of this enterobacteria represents to public health.

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