the aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a brazilian indigenous population. a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among kaingang native americans from the central region of the state of paraná, brazil. eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. after fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement of glucose, hdl cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ai and b apolipoprotein, and hemoglobin. the prevalences found were: fasting hyperglycemia (9.8%), hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), reduced hdl cholesterol (13.4%), hypertriglyceridemia (11%), abdominal obesity (37.8%), generalized obesity (26.8%), arterial hypertension (26.8%), and anemia (46.3%). the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the kaingang was 11%, all in females 20 to 49 years of age. the results suggested that the changes in the indigenous lifestyle, especially in eating habits and physical activity, have occurred.