the main objective of this work was to describe some socieconomic aspects of the onion production in brazil and to detect the principal challenges and opportunities for the onion agribusiness. the onion cultivation in brazil is a family activity (88%), generating about 250 thousand jobs directly involved in the production. the onion consumption in brazil is nearly 85 thousand t per month. with the consolidation of the mercosul, the onion import from argentina and the national production has caused excess of supply in some months, generating losses and consequent damages for the producers. the brazilian productive sector needs to improve the technological level of the onion production to reach greater technical and economic efficiency. however, it is necessary that brazilian and argentinian producers look for a better production forecast to avoid excess of supply during some periods of the year.