with the objective of estimating allele frequencies, and testing for population divergence for the csn1s1 locus, genotypes of animals from five goat populations; saanen (n = 97), alpine (n = 81) toggenburg (n = 92), local goats with external appearance similar to the murciana-granadina breed from central mexico (n = 26) and heterogeneous local animals denominated mosaico lagunero (n = 30), from northern mexico, were identified using pcr and xmn1 pcr-rflp methodology. for saanen, alpine and toggenburg, the sum of e and f alleles had the largest frequencies (from 0.468 to 0.789), while for the groups local murciana-granadina and mosaico lagunero the sum of the most frequent allelic groups (a* and b*), were 0.385 and 0.533 respectively. both local murciana-granadina and mosaico lagunero populations showed heterozygote excess (p < 0.08). the percentage of the total genetic variation (fst) explained by population differences was 5.16. there was genetic differentiation for most pair comparisons between populations (p < 0.05), excepting for alpine versus toggenburg, and toggenburg versus mosaico lagunero (p > 0.05). for saanen and alpine the frequencies of alleles e and f were similar to the same breeds previously analyzed in europe. therefore there are opportunities of increasing the frequency of the strong alleles for protein content gene assisted selection (gas) in these two breeds. for toggenburg the most frequent allelic groups were f (0.32) and b* (0.21). results indicate differentiation between most populations for this locus. moreover, heterozygote excess in local populations indicated breed admixture.