村级治理定位为供给公共品、培育现代公民和促进国家政权建设。国家治理转型和乡土社会变迁催生出的“富人治村”是乡村治理嬗变的表象。村级治理在权威结构、资源配置和利益攫取等方面呈现出寡头特征，灰色利益生产、精英结盟和政治庇护促成寡头治理再生产。外生性利益输入和乡土弱社会成为寡头治村的形塑要件。村级治理的“寡头定律”界定出资源下乡时代乡村政治实践的本质特征，寡头治村的相对固化消解掉村级治理的基本目标。面对普遍存在的村庄寡头政治，乡村振兴战略提出后基层治理能力的现代化，超越基层民主建设命题，对以县为主的地方治理提出深刻而直接的挑战。 The purpose of village governance is to provide public goods,cultivate modern citizens and promote the construction of state power. The phenomenon of villages governed by the rich originated from the transformation of the state and the change of the local society,which illustrates the evolution of rural governance. Village-level governance presents oligarchic features in the aspects of authoritative structure,resource allocation and profit taking. Gray interest production,elite alliance and political asylum structure contribute to reproduction of the oligarchy of village governance. Benefit from external input and the rural weak community are fundamental for the shaping of oligarchic village. The “oligarchy” of village governance defines the essential characteristics of rural political practice in the era of source distribution to rural areas. The relative solidification of oligarchic village breaks down the basic goal of village governance. Confronted by the prevalence of oligarchy in village governance,the rural revitalization strategy proposes to advocate the modernization of ability and democracy construction in village governance,which presents a profound and direct challenge to county-based local governance.