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Oligarchy versus Democracy and Regulation versus Deregulation under the Globalization Effect
Dumitru-Alexandru BODISLAV
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2012,
Abstract: On capitalism that is created under the pressure of globalization there are created many economic systems that derived into a new model: the asymmetric model created from propriety rights’ perspective and the influence of interest groups, an asymmetric model that is called “oligarchy”(1). For a better understanding of oligarchy we consider an oligarchic society, where the political power is in the hands of the producers of goods, that tend to protect their propriety rights, but this way they create entry barriers, destroying the propriety rights of future potential producers. Capitalism was and is stressed by the (de)regulation phenomena created by the competition which is shaped through globalization. With ease we can go from (de)regulating to oligarchic pressure, which from the globalization’s perspective can give birth to the lagging or decoupling in the global economic system. This paper researches these two cases and inserts them into the global framework to result the evolution of society’s members’ welfare.
Laboratories of Oligarchy? How the Iron Law Extends to Peer Production  [PDF]
Aaron Shaw,Benjamin Mako Hill
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Peer production projects like Wikipedia have inspired voluntary associations, collectives, social movements, and scholars to embrace open online collaboration as a model of democratic organization. However, many peer production projects exhibit entrenched leadership and deep inequalities, suggesting that they may not fulfill democratic ideals. Instead, peer production projects may conform to Robert Michels' "iron law of oligarchy," which proposes that democratic membership organizations become increasingly oligarchic as they grow. Using exhaustive data of internal processes from a sample of 683 wikis, we construct empirical measures of participation and test for increases in oligarchy associated with growth. In contrast to previous studies, we find support for Michels' iron law and conclude that peer production entails oligarchic organizational forms.
寡营养细菌
王颖群,严共华
微生物学通报 , 1995,
Abstract: 寡营养细菌王颖群,严共华(军事医学科学院微生物流行病研究所,北京100071)Kuznetsov等将“寡营养(oligotrophic)细菌”定义为第一次培养时能在含碳1-15mg/L的培养基上生长的细菌 ̄[1],这个定义已为大家普遍接受。如果它们不...
关于?粒??理???之??  [PDF]
?云龙
地质与勘探 , 1957,
Abstract: 关于?粒?进之原理??,目前还?有一个完整?点。苏联也正在进行??。几年?,虽然我?在?探效率上、?量上,有了?大的提高,但在理论上仍然是落后的。为了改变这一情况,有必要在?粒?进的理?研究上,进行一番??时?的??研究工作,以便用技术理?去指导实际工作,进一步提高?探工作的技术水平。目前?粒?进理?,虽然还?有获得?一的?点,然而基本上是在下边三种说法中进行??:第一种主?是:未被破碎的?粒,在?心压力的参助下对岩石压碎和碾磨;第二种主?是:已被破碎之?粒在?心压力的作
Oligarchy as a Phase Transition: The effect of wealth-attained advantage in a Fokker-Planck description of asset exchange  [PDF]
Bruce M. Boghosian,Adrian Devitt-Lee,Merek Johnson,Jeremy A. Marcq,Hongyan Wang
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In earlier work [1,2], we derived a Fokker-Planck equation for the ``Yard-Sale Model'' (YSM) of asset exchange. In the absence of redistribution, we showed that the Gini coefficient $G$ is a Lyapunov functional for this model [3], and that the time-asymptotic state of the model's wealth distribution has $G=1$, corresponding to complete inequality -- all of the wealth in the hands of a single agent. When a simple one-parameter model of redistribution, based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, is introduced, we also showed that the model admits a steady state exhibiting some features in common with the celebrated Pareto Law of wealth distribution [1]. In this work, we analyze the form of this steady-state distribution in much greater detail, using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. We find that, while Pareto's Law is approximately valid for low redistribution, it gives way to something more similar to Gibrat's Law when redistribution is higher. Also in this work, we generalize the model by introducing a one-parameter model of ``Wealth-Attained Advantage'' (WAA), favoring the wealthier of the two agents in a transaction. We show that if the ratio of the WAA parameter to the redistribution parameter exceeds a certain critical value, a phase transition takes place, resulting in a finite fraction of the total wealth of the population ``condensing'' to the wealthiest agent. We examine this phenomenon in some detail, and we posit that it provides a first-principles explanation of the phenomenon of oligarchy.
寡子卣铭文试读  [PDF]
余少红
安徽大学学报(哲学社会科学版) , 2009,
Abstract: 寡子卣是西周中期青铜器,从清代晚期开始,就有学者对其铭文进行研究。然而时至今日,其铭文中尚有个别文字未能正确隶定、识读,部分文字未能正确考释。现试对其铭文中某些文字进行重新考释,并疏解其文义。
反义寡核苷酸ph敏前体脂质体的制备及性质分析  [PDF]
王弘?,王升启?,王志清?,朱宝珍?
生物化学与生物物理进展 , 2000,
Abstract: 为了提高反义寡核苷酸的稳定性和生物利用度及避免在溶酶体内降解,采用旋转蒸发-薄膜水化、超声-挤压、冻干三步法完成ph敏前体脂质体的制备,研究了体外释药规律;以反义寡核苷酸为实验对象,测定了包封率.制得的ph敏前体脂质体复水后形成的ph敏脂质体形态圆整,粒径12.3~389.9nm范围内,平均粒径为22.7nm;三批ph敏脂质体的平均包封率为68.3%;体外释药方程为q=1.8382-2.5186×10-2t(r=0.9913);结果说明制备的ph敏前体脂质体水合形成的ph敏脂质体粒度适宜,可用于反义寡核苷酸的包封.
顺层片理形成机制分析
蔡学林
科学通报 , 1981,
Abstract: 片理是区域变质岩系特有的一种面理构造。不少地质学家比较重视对它的研究,提出了不同的认识,其中分歧较大的要算顺层片理,一是认为与层面一致的片理,属顺层片理,一是认为顺层片理是轴面片理在褶皱翼部的表现。为了探讨顺层片理,从1976年起,我们对河南省桐柏县围山城金银多金属矿带的片理进行了研究。本文根据该区的研究,结合大别山、秦岭等地变质岩系片理观察,讨论了顺层片理特征、与褶皱关系、形成机制等问题。
顺层片理形成机制分析  [PDF]
蔡学林,石绍清
科学通报 , 1981,
Abstract: 片理是区域变质岩系特有的一种面理构造。不少地质学家比较重视对它的研究,提出了不同的认识,其中分歧较大的要算顺层片理,一是认为与层面一致的片理,属顺层片理,一是认为顺层片理是轴面片理在褶皱翼部的表现[1]。为了探讨顺层片理,从1976年起,我们对河南省桐柏县围山城金银多金属矿带的片理进行了研究。本文根据该区的研究,结合大别山、秦岭等地变质岩系片理观察,讨论了顺层片理特征、与褶皱关系、形成机制等问题。
鋼的熱處理
柯俊
科学通报 , 1954,
Abstract: 鋼鐵有廣大的用途,除了因為它的提煉成本比較其他金屬低廉,冷熱加工容易,並且可以用加入合金元素的方法得到若干化學性能而外,還因為它可以經過各種的熱處理方法,獲得不同的機械性質,供工程上的需要。輓近數年來,有系統的研究工作,使我們對熱處理的基本原理,有了正確的初步了解。本文的目的,主要地就在簡要地介紹這些原理,同時也希望藉以說明金相学研究與鋼鐵的熱處理,理論與實際的密切聯系和不可分割性。
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