All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Simulation and Evaluation of Dust Emission with Polair3D-SIREAM Model over West Africa Focused on Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.101006, PP. 80-102

Keywords: Air Pollution, Dust Emission Modelling, PM10, Aerosol Optical Thickness, Polair3D-SIREAM

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The study of air pollution is recent in West Africa. There is a lack of data on air pollution. However, some studies conducted in West Africa show that air quality is a concern. Population growth and massive vehicles imports are contributing to the deterioration of this air quality. In this work, we present the modelling of desert aerosols using a CTM Polair3D-SIREAM. The objective is to evaluate the ability of Polair3D-SIREAM to reproduce observations of PM10 and Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOT). A simulation with Polair3D-SIREAM was carried out in West Africa, focused on Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) for 2007. The model of Marticorena and Bergametti (1995), MB95, was used to estimate desert aerosols emissions. The total emission of dust modelled is 52.2 Tg. For the evaluation of PM10, the simulated averages remained within the same orders of magnitude as the observed averages. Correlations are low in all the observation sites. The other indicators are similar to those found by Schmechtig et al. (2011). Performance criteria of Boylan and Russel (2006) are met for the observation sites of Ouagadougou and Ilorin (Nigeria). For the AOTs, the correlations are significantly improved, in particular, at the sites of Ouagadougou and Ilorin. Performance criteria of Boylan are met for all observation sites. However, the performance goals are only achieved for Ouagadougou and Ilorin.

References

[1]  WHO (2015) Health in 2015: From MDGs to SDGs. Technical Report. World Health Organization.
http://www.who.int/gho/publications/mdgs-sdgs/en/
[2]  Tractebel (1999) Etude de la qualité de l’air Ouagadougou. Technical Report. Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program, SSATP, Etude réalisée par “Tractebel Development Engineering” pour le compte de la composante mobilité urbaine du SSATP.
[3]  BM (1999) Etude de la qualité de l’air en milieu urbain: Cas de Dakar et Ouagadougou. Technical Report. Banque Mondiale, Programme de politiques de transports en Afrique Subsaharienne, 52 p.
[4]  Worou, C.T. (2005) Pollution Atmosphérique au Bénin: Cas de Cotonou. Technical Report. Ministère de l’Environnement de l’Habitat et de l’Urbanisme, Bénin.
[5]  Nana, B. (2011) Pollution atmosphérique en Afrique de l’Ouest: Mesure et modélisation. Ph.D. Thesis, Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
[6]  CREPA (1994) Etude sur la pollution atmosphérique dans la ville de Ouagadougou, Technical Report, Centre Regional pour l’Eau Potable et l’Assainissement, Ministère de l’Environnement et du tourisme.
[7]  Formenti, P., Rajot, J.L., Desboeufs, K., Caquineau, S., Nava, S.C.S., Gaudichet, A., Journet, E., Triquet, S., Alfaro, S., Chiari, M., Haywood, J., Coe, H. and Highwood, E., (2008) Regional Variability of the Composition of Mineral Dust from Western Africa: Results from the AMMA SOP0/DABEX and DODO Field Campaigns. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009903
[8]  Kandler, K., Benker, N., Bundke, U., Cuevas, E., Ebert, M., Knippertz, P., Rodrguez, S., Schtz, L. and Weinbruch, S. (2007) Chemical Composition and Complex Refractive Index of Saharan Mineral Dust at Izaa, Tenerife (Spain) Derived by Electron Microscopy. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 8058-8074.
[9]  Marticorena, B. and Bergametti, G. (1995) Modeling the Atmospheric Dust Cycle: 1. Design of a Soil Derived Dust Production Scheme. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 16415-16430.
https://doi.org/10.1029/95JD00690
[10]  Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Léon, J.F. and Mahowald, N.M. (2008) Modeling Mineral Dust Emission from the Sahara Desert Using New Surface Properties and Soil Database. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, 1-20.
[11]  Engelstaedter, S., Tegen, I. and Washington, R. (2006) North African Dust Emissions and Transport. Earth-Science Reviews, 79, 73-100.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.06.004
[12]  Miller, R.L., Perlwitz, J. and Tegen, I. (2004) Feedback upon Dust Emission by Dust Radiative Forcing through the Planetary Boundary Layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D24209.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004912
[13]  Ginoux, P., Prospero, J.M., Torres, O. and Chin, M., (2004) Long-Term Simulation of Global Dust Distribution with the GOCART Model: Correlation with North Atlantic Oscillation. Environmental Modelling & Software, 19, 113-128.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-8152(03)00114-2
[14]  Formenti, P., Schütz, L., Balkanski, Y., Desboeufs, K., Ebert, M., Kandler, K., Petzold, A., Scheuvens, D., Weinbruch, S. and Zhang, D. (2011) Recent Progress in Understanding Physical and Chemical Properties of African and Asian mineral dust. Atmos. Chemical Physics, 11, 8231-8256.
[15]  Goudie, A. (2008) Dust Storms: Recent Developments. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 89-94.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.007
[16]  Lambert, F., Kug, J., Park, R., Mahowald, N., Winckler, G., Abe-Ouchi, A., O’ishi, R., Takemura, T. and Lee, J.H. (2013) The Role of Mineral Dust Aerosols in Polar Temperature Amplification. Nature Climate Change, 3, 487-491.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1785
[17]  Gillette, D.A. (1979) Environmental Factors Affecting Dust Emission by Wind Erosion. Wiley and Sons, New York, 71-94.
[18]  Shao, Y., Raupach, M.R. and Findlater, P.A. (1993) Effect of Saltation Bombardment on the Entrainment of Dust by Wind. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 12,719-12,726.
https://doi.org/10.1029/93JD00396
[19]  Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Aumont, B.Y.C., N’Doumé, C. and Legrand, M. (1997) Modeling the Atmospheric Dust Cycle: 2. Simulations of Saharan Dust Sources. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 4,387-4,404.
[20]  Alfaro, S.C., Gaudichet, A., Gomes, L. and Maillé, M. (1997) Modeling the Size Distribution of a Soil Aerosol Produced by Sandblasting. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 11239-11249.
https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD00403
[21]  Alfaro, S.C., Gaudichet, A., Gomes, L. and Maille, M. (1998) Mineral Aerosol Production by Wind Erosion: Aerosol Particle Sizes and Binding Energies. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 991-994.
https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL00502
[22]  Alfaro, S.C. and Gomes, L. (2001) Modelling Mineral Aerosol Production by Wind Erosion: Emission Intensities and Aerosol Distributions in Source Areas. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18075-18084.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900339
[23]  Gong, S.L., Zhang, X.Y., Zhao, T.L., McKendry, I.G., Jaffe, D.A. and Lu, N.M. (2003) Characterization of Soil Dust Distributions in China and Its Transport during Ace-Asia: 2. Model Simulation and Validation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, 4262.
[24]  Shao, Y. (2001) A Model for Mineral Dust Emission. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 20239-20254.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD900171
[25]  Shao, Y. (2004) Simplification of a Dust Emission Scheme and Comparison with Data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D10202.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004372
[26]  In, H.J. and Park, S.U. (2002) A Simulation of Long Range Transport of Yellow Sand Observed in April 1998 in Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 4173-4187.
[27]  Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G. and Mei, F. (2006) Modeling Mineral Dust Emissions from Chinese and Mongolian Deserts. Global and Planetary Change, 52, 121-141.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.02.012
[28]  Zhao, T.L., Gong, S.L., Zhang, X.Y., Abdel-Mawgoud, A. and Shao, Y.P. (2006) An Assessment of Dust Emission Schemes in Modeling East Asian Dust Storms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111.
[29]  Goudie, A. and Middleton, N. (2001) Sharan Dust Storms: Nature and Consequences. Earth-Science Reviews, 56, 179-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(01)00067-8
[30]  Mahowald, N., Bergametti, G., Brooks, N., Duce, R.A., Jickells, T.D., Kubilay, N., Prospero, J. and Tegen, I. (2005) Atmospheric Global Dust Cycle and Iron Inputs to the Ocean. Global Biochemical Cycles, 19, GB4025.
[31]  Zender, C.S., Miller, R.L. and Tegen, I. (2004) Quantifying Mineral Dust Mass Budget: Terminolgy, Constraints and Current Estimates. EOS, 85, 509-512.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2004EO480002
[32]  Schmechtig, C., Marticorena, B., Chatenet, B., Bergametti, G., Rajot, J.L. and Coman, A. (2011) Simulation of the Mineral Dust Content over Western Africa from the Event to the Annual Scale with the CHIMERE-DUST Model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 7185-7207.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-7185-2011
[33]  Vautard, R., Beekmann, M., Roux, J. and Gombert, D. (2001) Validation of a Deterministic Forecasting System for the Ozone Concentrations over the Paris. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 2449-2461.
[34]  Bessagnet, B., Hodzic, A., Vautard, R., Beekmann, M., Cheinet, S., Honoré, C., Liousse, C. and Rouil, L. (2004) Aerosol Modeling with CHIMERE—Preliminary Evaluation at the Continental Scale. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2803-2817.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.02.034
[35]  Marticorena, B., Chatenet, B., Rajot, J.L., Traore, S., Coulibaly, M., Diallo, A., Koné, I., Maman, A., N’Diaye, T. and Zakou, A. (2010) Temporal Variability of Mineral Dust Concentrations over West Africa: Analyses of a Pluriannual Monitoring from the Amma Sahelian Dust Transect. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Discussions, 10, 8051-8101.
[36]  Olivier, J.G.J., Bouwman, A.F., van der Maas, C.W.M. and Berdowski, J.J.M. (1994) Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 31, 93-106.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00547184
[37]  Olivier, J.J.B., Peters, J., Bakker, J., Visschedijk, A. and Bloos, J. (2001) Applications of EDGAR. Including a Description of EDGAR 3.0: Reference Database with Trend Data for 1970-1995. Technical Report, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).
[38]  Laurent, B. (2006) Simulation des émissions d’aérosols désertiques l’échelle continentale: Analyse climatologique des émissions du Nord-Est de l’Asie et du nord de l’Afrique. Ph.D. Thesis, Université Paris 12.
[39]  White, B.R. (1979) Soil Transport by Winds on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 4643-4651.
https://doi.org/10.1029/JB084iB09p04643
[40]  Fécan, F., Marticorena, B. and Bergametti, G. (1999) Parameterization of the Increase of the Aeolian Erosion Threshold wind Friction Velocity Due to Soil Moisture for Semi-Arid Areas. Annals of Geophysics, 17, 149-157.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s005850050744
[41]  Marticorena, B., Chazette, P., Bergametti, G., Dulac, F. and Legrand, M. (2004) Mapping the Aerodynamic Roughness Length of Desert Surfaces from the Polder/Adeos Bi-Directional Reflectance Product. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 603-626.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116031000116976
[42]  Laurent, B., Marticorena, B., Bergametti, G., Chazette, P., Maignan, F. and Schmechtig, C. (2005) Simulation of the Mineral Dust Emission Frequencies from Desert Areas of China and Mongolia Using an Aerodynamic Roughness Length Map Derived from the Polder/Adeos 1 Surface Products. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D18S04.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005013
[43]  Callot, Y.B., Marticorena, B. and Bergametti, G. (2000) Geomorphologic Approach for Modeling the Surface Features of Arid Environments in a Model of Dust Emission: Application to the Sahara Desert. Geodinamica Acta, 13, 245-270.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09853111.2000.11105373
[44]  Mallet, V., Quelo, D., Sportisse, B., Ahmed de Biasi, M., Debry, E., Korsakissok, I., Wu, L., Roustan, Y., Sartelet, K., Tombette, M. and Foudhil, H. (2007) Technical Note: The Air Quality Modeling System Polyphemus. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physic, 7, 5479-5487.
[45]  Debry, E., Fahey, K., Sartelet, K., Sportisse, B. and Tombette, M. (2007) Technical Note: A New Size Resolved Aerosol Model (SIREAM). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 1537-1547.
http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/1537/2007/
[46]  Couvidat, F., Debry, E., Sartelet, K. and Sei-gneur, C. (2012) A Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organic (H2O) Aerosol Model: Development, Evaluation and Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, D10304.
[47]  Nenes, A., Pandis, S.N. and Pilinis, C. (1998) Isorropia: A New Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model for Multiphase Multicomponent Inorganic Aerosols. Aquatic Geochemistry, 4, 123-152.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009604003981
[48]  Yarwood, G., Rao, S., Yocke, M. and Whitten, G. (2005) Updates to the Carbon Bond Chemical Mechanism: CB05. Technical Report, Final Report to US EPA, RT-0400675.
[49]  Kim, Y., Sartelet, K. and Seigneur, C. (2009) Comparison of Two Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms of Ozone Formation over Europe. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 62, 89-119.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-009-9142-5
[50]  Kim, Y., Couvidat, F., Sartelet, K. and Seigneur, C. (2011) Comparison of Different Gas-Phase Mechanisms and Aerosol Modules for Simulating Particulate Matter Formation. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 61, 1218-1226.
[51]  Zhang, L., Brook, J. and Vet, R. (2003) A Revised Parameterization for Gaseous Dry Deposition in Air Quality Models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3, 2067-2082.
[52]  Simpson, D., Fagerli, H., Jonson, J.E., Tsyro, S., Wind, P. and Tuovinen, J.P. (2003) Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. Part I: Unified EMEP Model Description. Technical Report 1, EMEP.
[53]  Zhang, L., Gong, S., Padro, J. and Barrie, L. (2001) A Size-Segregated Particle Dry Deposition Scheme for an Atmospheric Aerosol Module. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 549-560.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00326-5
[54]  Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., Yarber, K.F., Nelson, S.M., Woo, J. and Klimont, Z. (2004) A Technology Based Global Inventory of Black and Organic Carbon Emissions from Combustion. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D14203.
https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003697
[55]  Monahan, E., Spiel, D. and Davidson, K. (1986) A Model of Marine Aerosol Generation via Whitecaps and Wave Disruption. In: Reidel, D., Ed., Oceanic Whitecaps and Their Role in Air-Sea Exchange Processes, Springer, Berlin, 167-174.
[56]  Nana, B., Sanogo, O., Savadogo, P.W., Daho, T., Bouda, M. and Koulidiati, J. (2012) Air Quality Study in Urban Centers: Case Study of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. FUTY Journal of the Environment, 7.
[57]  Boylan, J.W. and Russel, A.G. (2006) PM and Light Extinction Model Performance Metrics, Goals, and Criteria for Three-Dimensional Air Quality Models. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 4946-4959.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.09.087
[58]  Marticorena, B. and Bergametti, G. (1996) Two-Years Simulations of Seasonal and Interannual Changes of the Saharan Dust Emissions. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 1921-1924.
[59]  Song, H., Wang, K., Zhang, Y., Hong, C. and Zhou, S. (2017) Simulation and Evaluation of Dust Emissions with WRF-Chem (v3.7.1) and Its Relationship to the Changing Climate over East Asia from 1980 to 2015. Atmospheric Environment, 167, 511-522.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.051
[60]  Schütz, L., Jaenicke, R. and Pietrek, H. (1981) Saharan Dust Transport over the North Atlantic Ocean: Model Calculations and Measurements. In: Péwé, T.L., Ed., Desert Dust, Geological Society of America, 87-100.
https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE186-p87
[61]  Prospero, J.M. (1996) The Atmospheric Transport of Particles to the Ocean. In: Ittekkot, V., Schaefer, P., Honjo, S. and Depetris, P.J., Eds., Particle Flux in the Ocean, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 19-52.
[62]  Swap, R., Ulanski, S., Cobbett, M. and Garstang, M. (1996) Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Saharan Dust Outbreaks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 4205-4220.
[63]  Ozer, P. (2001) Les lithometeores en region sahelienne. International Journal of Tropical Ecology and Geography, 24, 1-317.
[64]  Kaufman, Y.J., Koren, I., Remer, L.A., Tanre, D., Ginoux, P. and Fan, S. (2005) Dust Transport and Deposition Observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Space-Craft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, 4205-4220.
[65]  Menut, L., Chiapello, I. and Moulin, C. (2009) Predictability of Mineral Dust Concentrations: The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis First Short Observation Period Forecasted with CHIMERE-DUST. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus