All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Psychology  2019 

The Development of Emotional Regulation in Pre-Schoolers: The Role of Sociodramatic Play

DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.101005, PP. 62-78

Keywords: Sociodramatic Play, Emotion Regulation, Pre-Schoolers, School Intervention

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The present research focuses on the link between emotion regulation in preschoolers and the efficiency of sociodramatic play as a means of developing emotional and social skills appropriate for each developmental stage. In particular, we examined the effects of sociodramatic play on a four-year-old boy named Andreas, who demonstrated signs of limited emotional regulation, such as angry outbursts, inability to control his emotions and inability to cope in emotion-inducing situations. This swift in his behaviour, caused by his mother’s negative control behaviour, was measured through the Emotion Regulation Checklist, the Delay Gratification Task and the Task of Effortful Control. Drawing from a plethora of theorists who support the benefits of sociodramatic play for the development of emotion regulation skills, we designed a three months school based intervention for Andreas and employed the tests beforehand and after the end of the sociodramatic sessions to explore the efficiency of the intervention. Results are discussed in regards to relevant literature.

References

[1]  Ackerman, B. P., Brown, E. D., & Izard, C. E. (2004). The Relations between Contextual Risk, Earned Income, and the School Adjustment of Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families. Developmental Psychology, 40, 204-216.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.204
[2]  Berk, L. E. (2001). Awakening Children’s Minds: How Parents and Teachers Can Make a Difference. New York: Oxford University Press.
[3]  Berk, L. E., Mann, T. D., & Ogan, A. T. (2006). Make-Believe Play: Wellspring for the Development of Self-Tegulation. In D. G. Singer, R. Golinkoff, & K. Hirsh-Pasek (Eds.), Play = Learning: How Play Motivates and Enhances Children’s Cognitive and Social-Emotional Growth (pp. 74-100). New York: Oxford University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304381.003.0005
[4]  Bornstein, M. H., & Seuss, P. E. (2000). Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years. Developmental Psychology, 36, 54-65. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.1.54
[5]  Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Child Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371-399.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233
[6]  Bruner, J. (1972). The Nature and Uses of Immaturity. American Psychologist, 27, 687-708. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033144
[7]  Burns, S. M., & Brainerd, C. J. (1979). Effects on Constructive and Dramatic Play on Perspective Taking in Very Young Children. Developmental Psychology, 15, 512-421.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.15.5.512
[8]  Calkins, S. D. (1994). Origins and Outcomes of Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 53-72.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1166138
[9]  Calkins, S. D. (2004). Temperament and Emotional Regulation: Multiple Models of Early Development. Advances in Consciousness Research, 54, 35-60.
https://doi.org/10.1075/aicr.54.04cal
[10]  Calkins, S. D., Smith, C. L., Gill, K. L., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Maternal Interactive Style across Contexts: Relations to Emotional, Behavioral, and Physiological Regulation during Toddlerhood. Social Development, 7, 350-369.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00072
[11]  Clark, C. D. (2007). Therapeutic Advantages of Play. In A. Goncii, & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and Development: Evolutionary, Sociocultural, and Functional Perspectives (pp. 275-293). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[12]  Denham, S. A., Blair, K. A., DeMulder, E., Levitas, J., Sawyer, K., Auerbach-Major, S., & Queenan, P. (2003). Preschool Emotional Competence: Pathway to Social Competence? Child Development, 74, 238-256. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00533
[13]  Denham, S. A., Mitchell-Copeland, J., Strandberg, K., Auerbach, S., & Blair, K. (1997). Parental Contributions to Preschoolers’ Emotional Competence: Direct and Indirect Effects. Motivation and Emotion, 21, 65-86. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024426431247
[14]  Diener, M. L., Mengelsdorf, S. C., McHale, J. L., & Frosch, C. A. (2002). Infants’ Behavioral Strategies for Emotion Regulation with Fathers and Mothers: Associations with Emotional Expressions and Attachment Quality. Infancy, 3, 153-174.
https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327078IN0302_3
[15]  Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Social Development, 22, 444-466.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00652.x
[16]  Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1992). Emotion, Regulation, and the Development of Social Competence. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychobgy: Vol. 14. Emotion and Behavior (pp. 119-150). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
[17]  Eisenberg, N., & Morris, A. S. (2002). Children’s Emotion-Related Regulation. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 30, 189-229.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2407(02)80042-8
[18]  Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., & Reiser, M. (2002). The Role of Emotionality and Regulation in Children’s Social Competence and Adjustment. In L. Pulkinnen, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Paths to Successful Development: Personality in the Life Course (pp. 46-70). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489761.003
[19]  Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Minore, D., Mathy, R., Hanish, L., & Brown, T. (1994). Children’s Enacted Interpersonal Strategies: Their Relations to Social Behavior and Negative Emotionality. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 212-232.
[20]  Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among Positive Parenting, Children’s Effortful Control, and Externalizing Problems: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study. Child Development, 76, 1055-1071.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00897.x
[21]  Fein, G. G. (1981). Pretend Play in Childhood: An Integrative Review. Child Development, 52, 1095-1118. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129497
[22]  Forys, S., & McCune-Nicholich, L. (1984). Shared Pretend: Sociodramatic Play at 3 Years of Age. In I. Bretherton (Ed.), Symbolic Play: The Development of Social Understanding (pp. 159-191). New York: Academic Press.
[23]  Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral Inhibition: Linking Biology and Behavior within a Developmental Framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235-262.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141532
[24]  Garvey, C. (1990). Play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[25]  Grolnick, W. S., & Kurowski, C. O. (1999). Family Processes and the Development of Children’s Self-Regulation. Educational Psychologist, 34, 3-14.
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3401_1
[26]  Grolnick, W. S., McMenamy, J. M., & Kurowski, C. O. (2006). Emotional Self-Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood. In L. Balter, & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues (2nd ed., pp. 3-25). New York: Psychology Press.
[27]  Howse, R. B., Calkins, S. D., Anastopoulos, A. D., Keane, S. P., & Shelton, T. L. (2003). Regulatory Contributors to Children’s Kindergarten Achievement. Early Education and Development, 14, 101-120. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed1401_7
[28]  Kim, S., Nordling, J. K., Yoon, J. E., Boldt, L. J., & Kochanska, G. (2013). Effortful Control in “Hot” and “Cool” Tasks Differentially Predicts Children’s Behavior Problems and Academic Performance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 43-56.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9661-4
[29]  Kochanska, G., & Knaack, A. (2003). Effortful Control as a Personality Characteristic of Young Children: Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of personality, 71, 1087-1112. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106008
[30]  Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The Development of Self-Regulation in the First Four Years of Life. Child Development, 72, 1091-1111.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00336
[31]  Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of Distress and Negative Emotions: A Developmental View. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343-354.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.3.343
[32]  Lovinger, S. L. (1974). Sociodramalic Play and Language Development in Preschool Disadvantaged Children. Psychology in Schools, 11, 313-320.
https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(197407)11:3<313::AID-PITS2310110315>3.0.CO;2-L
[33]  McIntyre, L. L., Blacher, J., & Baker, B. L. (2006). Transition to School: Adaptation in Young Children with and without Developmental Delays. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 349-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00783.x
[34]  Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A Hot-Cool System Analysis of Delay of Gratification: Dynamics of Willpower. Psychological Review, 106, 3-19.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.106.1.3
[35]  Mischel, W., & Baker, N. (1995). Cognitive Appraisals and Transformations in Delay Behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 254-261.
[36]  Mischel, W., & Ebbesen, E. B. (1970). Attention in Delay of Gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 329-337. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0029815
[37]  Mischel, W., Ebbesen, E. B., & Raskoff Zeiss, A. (1972). Cognitive and Attentional Mechanisms in Delay of Gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 204-218. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0032198
[38]  Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The Role of the Family Context in the Development of Emotion Regulation. Social Development, 16, 361-388. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.x
[39]  Pietromonaco, P. R., & Barrett, L. F. (2009). Valence Focus and Self-Esteem Lability: Reacting to Hedonic Cues in the Social Environment. Emotion, 9, 406-418.
https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015691
[40]  Rosen, C. E. (1974). The Effects of Sociodramalic Play on Problem Solving-Behavior among Culturally Disadvantaged Preschool Children. Child Development, 45, 920-927.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1128077
[41]  Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (1998). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development (pp. 105-176). New York: Wiley.
[42]  Russ, S. W. (1995). Play Psychotherapy Research: State of the Science. In T. H. Ollendick, & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 365-391). New York: Plenum.
[43]  Russ, S. W. (2004). Play in Child Development and Psychotherapy: Toward Empirically Supported Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[44]  Saltz, E., Dixon, D., & Johnson, J. (1977). Training Disadvantaged Preschoolers on Various Fantasy Activities: Effects on Cognitive Functioning and Impulse Control. Child Development, 48, 367-380. https://doi.org/10.2307/1128629
[45]  Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion Regulation among School-Age Children: The Development and Validation of a New Criterion Q-Sort Scale. Developmental Psychology, 33, 906. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.906
[46]  Shipman, K., Zeman, J., Fitzgerald, M., & Swisher, L. M. (2003). Regulating Emotion in Parent-Child and Peer Relationships: A Comparison of Sexually Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Girls. Child Maltreatment, 8, 163-172.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559503254144
[47]  Singer, D. G., & Singer, J. L. (1990). The House of Make-Believe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[48]  Smilansky, S. (1968). The Effects of Sociodramatic Play on Disadvantaged Children. New York: Wiley.
[49]  Smith, P. K., Dalgleish, M., & Herzmark, G. (1981). A Comparison of the Effects of Fantasy Lay Tutoring and Skills Tutoring in Nursery Classes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 4, 421-441.
[50]  Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion Regulation: A Theme in Search of Definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 25-52.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1166137
[51]  Thorp, D. M., Stahmer, A. C., & Schreibman, L. (1995). Effects of Sociodramatic Play Training on Children with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 265-282. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02179288
[52]  Tobin, R. M., & Graziano, W. G. (2006). Development of Regulatory Processes through Adolescence: A Review of Recent Empirical Studies. In D. Mroczek, & T. Little (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Development (pp. 263-283). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[53]  Vondra, J. I., Shaw, D. S., Swearingen, L., Cohen, M., & Owens, E. B. (2001). Attachment Stability and Emotional and Behavioral Regulation from Infancy to Preschool Age. Development & Psychopathology, 13, 13-33.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940100102X
[54]  Vygotsky, L. S. (1976). Play and Its Role in the Mental Development of the Child. In J. S. Bruner, A. Jolly, & K. Sylva (Eds.), Play—Its Role in Development and Evolution (pp. 537-554). New York, NY: Basic Books.
[55]  Walden, T. A., & Baxter, A. (1989). The Effect of Context and Age on Social Referencing. Child Development, 60, 1511-1518. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130939
[56]  Zeman, J., Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Stegall, S. (2006). Emotion Regulation in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200604000-00014

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus