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Pre-Schoolers’ Reports of Conflicting Points Secretly Inserted into a Co-Witnessed Event: An Experimental Investigation Using the MORI Technique  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori, Ryuta Takahashi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31005
Abstract: Thirteen pre-school and ten undergraduate pairs participated as eyewitnesses to a simulated criminal event presented through animated cartoons using a presentation trick (MORI technique). Although there were two different versions, the MORI technique had participants observe only one version without being aware of the other. In three reporting sessions, participants recalled what they presumed they had jointly observed; individually immediately after the presentation, collaboratively after the individual recall, and again individually one week later. The main results were: pre-schoolers, as well as undergraduates, showed better recall in the collaborative tests, though the former generally showed poorer recall than the latter, pre-schoolers tended to conform more frequently than undergraduates in the week-later tests, and both pre-school and undergraduate pairs conformed more often for amendment than distortion.
Emotional Intelligence: Does Philosophy Have a Part to Play?  [PDF]
Ann Gazzard
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2002,
Abstract: Philosophy and feeling have probably enjoyed as much popular separation as head and heart, body and mind or body and soul. It is not unusual for thoughts and feelings or emotions to be considered very different kinds of things, and hence autonomous processes. Moreover, it is also not unusual to find this perception mirrored in psychological literature when, for example, people are characterizedas either thinking types or feeling types . This paper represents an attempt to close this gap. Recent neurophysiological research has made it clear, at least on the physiological level, that indeedemotional behavior, most particularly desirable emotionality, is a product of both the thinking brain and the emotional brain . Looking inside the intricacies of this neural connection, one finds an important, if not necessary, role for philosophy in the development of emotional intelligence. This paper explores what is meant by philosophy , what is meant by emotional intelligence , and then sets about to explain the connection between them. Early childhood education is the context used to show how this might be done. The interplay between philosophical thinking and emotional well being is not restricted to any age level or category of people. Early childhood, however, has been selected as the case in point because it clearly sets the stage for the quality of emotional experience to follow.
Assessing handedness in pre-schoolers: Construction and initial validation of a hand preference test for 4-6-year-olds  [PDF]
Psychology Science , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a test for measuring the handedness of pre-school children. The newly developed test consists of 14 activities for checking various aspects of hand preference and was administered to a Viennese sample of 120 children of the ages 4 to 6.5 (18 left-handed, 17 ambidextrous and 85 right-handed). For the purpose of validation, the handedness of the children was assessed via a questionnaire given to parents, observation of the hand used to draw and testing of visual-motor skills as well as general level of development using the Viennese Development Test (WET, Kastner-Koller & Deimann, 2002). The hand preference test proved to be reliable (α=0.97). The inter-correlations of the handedness measures gathered (parent’s estimate as well as observation of drawing hand) with the hand preference test substantiates the concurrent validity of the procedure. Right-handers exhibited the most pronounced hand preference; while the hand use of left-handers was significantly less lateralized. Irrespective of the direction of handedness, children with a consistent hand preference had higher total development scores than children with inconsistent use, i.e. frequent changes in hand used for a specific activity. Compared to ambidextrous and right-handed children, left-handers achieved significantly lower scores in the field of visual-motor skills. The results highlight the necessity of a reliable method for differentiated measurement of handedness as early as pre-school.
Gender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play  [PDF]
J. Matias Kivikangas, Jari K?tsyri, Simo J?rvel?, Niklas Ravaja
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100318
Abstract: Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.
Using dramatic role-play to develop emotional aptitude  [cached]
Russell Dinapoli
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2009, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.9.2.90771
Abstract: As university educators, we need to prepare students for the transition from the information age to what Daniel H. Pink (2005) calls the conceptual age, which is governed by artistry, empathy and emotion, by including in the curricula activities that stimulate both hemispheres of the brain. This can be done by promoting activities that energize what Daniel Goleman (1995) refers to as emotional intelligence, and it further maintains that, as Paul Ekman (2003) suggests, the ability to detect feelings improves communication. Recognizing the need to include in the curricula procedures that help develop students’ right brain aptitudes and enhance their communication skills, I have endeavoured to introduce dramatic scene study as a sustained activity in my English for Specific Purposes courses at the Universidad de Valencia. My aim was to energize the students’ creative and emotional aptitudes, as well as to dynamize effective teamwork. This article sustains that dramatic role-play, based on scripted scene study and related improvisational activities, is one way of achieving this.
The Contribution of Virtual Reality to Social and Emotional Learning in Pre-Service Teachers  [PDF]
Eyal Weissblueth, Yonit Nissim
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.910114
Abstract: This research focused on pre-service teachers’ experiences in a virtual reality (VR) teaching unit that was included in a special course, “Educating for the Future,” designed to enhance skills needed in the twenty-first century. The study examined how the trainees’ experiences of working with VR affected their social and emotional learning. The research population included 176 students in their second year of a four-year training course to become teachers in the K-12 educational system. The research questions were whether teaching approaches employing VR have an impact on student teachers’ social and emotional learning (SEL); and, if so, how collaboration in VR classroom activities and projects fosters learners’ SEL. The study’s main findings demonstrated that VR learning environments helped student teachers increase their social and emotional involvement in their learning and enabled them to become more innovative and creative as they harnessed the powers of VR. VR challenges learners with active teaching and learning and transforms student teachers into active participants who create and innovate.
Study of Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Educational Adjustment in Pre-University Girl Students of Tehran in 2008  [cached]
S. Maryam Mousavi,Marzieh Raeesi,Aliasghar Asgharnejade-Farid
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Regarding to the importance of emotional intelligence in adjusting behaviors, this study was carried out to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and educational adjustment in pre-university girl students of Tehran in2008.Materials and Method: In this descriptive study, 300 pre-university girl students of Tehran city were selected via multi-stage stratified random sampling. The instruments for gathering data were Bar-on emotional intelligence questionnaire and adjustment inventory for high school students. Data were analyzed by means of chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the study showed that there was significant correlation between emotional intelligence and educational adjustment (p<0.01). Conclusion: Regarding meaningful association between emotional intelligence and educational adjustment, training on the emotional intelligence factors, in order to effective adjustment is mandatory for students
Event-Related Potentials Elicited by Pre-Attentive Emotional Changes in Temporal Context  [PDF]
Tomomi Fujimura, Kazuo Okanoya
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063703
Abstract: The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100–200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200–260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context.
Chip and Skim: cloning EMV cards with the pre-play attack  [PDF]
Mike Bond,Omar Choudary,Steven J. Murdoch,Sergei Skorobogatov,Ross Anderson
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: EMV, also known as "Chip and PIN", is the leading system for card payments worldwide. It is used throughout Europe and much of Asia, and is starting to be introduced in North America too. Payment cards contain a chip so they can execute an authentication protocol. This protocol requires point-of-sale (POS) terminals or ATMs to generate a nonce, called the unpredictable number, for each transaction to ensure it is fresh. We have discovered that some EMV implementers have merely used counters, timestamps or home-grown algorithms to supply this number. This exposes them to a "pre-play" attack which is indistinguishable from card cloning from the standpoint of the logs available to the card-issuing bank, and can be carried out even if it is impossible to clone a card physically (in the sense of extracting the key material and loading it into another card). Card cloning is the very type of fraud that EMV was supposed to prevent. We describe how we detected the vulnerability, a survey methodology we developed to chart the scope of the weakness, evidence from ATM and terminal experiments in the field, and our implementation of proof-of-concept attacks. We found flaws in widely-used ATMs from the largest manufacturers. We can now explain at least some of the increasing number of frauds in which victims are refused refunds by banks which claim that EMV cards cannot be cloned and that a customer involved in a dispute must therefore be mistaken or complicit. Pre-play attacks may also be carried out by malware in an ATM or POS terminal, or by a man-in-the-middle between the terminal and the acquirer. We explore the design and implementation mistakes that enabled the flaw to evade detection until now: shortcomings of the EMV specification, of the EMV kernel certification process, of implementation testing, formal analysis, or monitoring customer complaints. Finally we discuss countermeasures.
Andrew M. Lane,Tracey J. Devonport,Istvan Soos,Istvan Karsai
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: This study investigated relationships between self-report measures of emotional intelligence and memories of pre-competitive emotions before optimal and dysfunctional athletic performance. Participant-athletes (n = 284) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence and two measures of pre-competitive emotions; a) emotions experienced before an optimal performance, and b) emotions experienced before a dysfunctional performance. Consistent with theoretical predictions, repeated MANOVA results demonstrated pleasant emotions associated with optimal performance and unpleasant emotions associated with dysfunctional performance. Emotional intelligence correlated with pleasant emotions in both performances with individuals reporting low scores on the self-report emotional intelligence scale appearing to experience intense unpleasant emotions before dysfunctional performance. We suggest that future research should investigate relationships between emotional intelligence and emotion-regulation strategies used by athletes.
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