All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Physical Activity Performance among Obese Adolescents Who Are Enrolled in the Obesity Treatment Program: A Comparative Study

DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2016.43015, PP. 163-173

Keywords: Obesity, Adolescents, Physical Activity, BMI, Weight-Management Program, Sedentary Behaviors

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Existing literature indicates that a weight-management program that includes diet modification, Physical Activity (PA) instructions and behavioral modification in weight reduction increases obese adolescents’ participation in PA. However, the effect of such a program on obese Saudi adolescents is unknown. Objective: To examine the effects of a weight-management program in terms of decreasing Body Mass Index (BMI) and improving participation in PA in obese Saudi adolescents, and to establish whether differences exist between genders in response to a weight-management program. PA was measured by Arab Teens Life Style (ATLS) questionnaire for both groups. Results: A wide range of differences in PA and sedentary time are evident between new and weight- managed patients and two genders. PA performance was significantly higher among the weight- managed patients compared with new patients. Also, for boys there were no differences between both groups in PA performance. While, girls’ PA was significantly higher among the girls in weight- managed group compared with girls in new patients group. Weight-managed patients spend significantly less time on the computer and/or the Internet per day compared with new patients. After treatment, the mean BMI among the weight-managed patients slightly decreased. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the weight-management program could be effective in treating Saudi obese adolescents due to its effect in BMI reduction and greater improvement in PA performance. The surprising result from this study, PA differences between the groups were because of the total PA of girls only, meaning that obesity treatment program can lower the percentage of obesity among women and increase their levels of physical activity.


[1]  World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. No. 894. World Health Organization.
[2]  Daniels, R.S. (2006) From Critical Periods for Abnormal Weight Gain in Children and Adolescents. In: Goran, S.M.I. and Sothern, M.S., Ed., Handbook of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathophysiology & Prevention, Taylor & Francis Group, Florida, 67-75.
[3]  El Mouzan, M.I., Foster, P.J., Al Herbish, A.S., et al. (2010) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Saudi Children and Adolescents. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 30, 203-208.
[4]  Al-Hazzaa, H.M., et al. (2011) Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits among Saudi Adolescents Relative to Age, Gender and Region. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 140.
[5]  McManus, A.M. and Mellecker, R.R. (2012) Physical Activity and Obese Children. Journal of Sport and Health Sci- ence, 1, 141-148.
[6]  Department of Health; Physical Activity; Health Improvement and Protection (2011) Start Active, Stay Active: A Report on Physical Activity from the Four Home Countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Department of Health, London.
[7]  Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee (2008) Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC.
[8]  Sedentary Behaviour and Obesity Expert Working Group (2010) Sedentary Behaviour and Obesity: Review of the Current Scientific Evidence. Department of Health, London.
[9]  Friedemann, C., et al. (2012) Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Healthy Children and Its Association with Body Mass Index: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMJ, 345, e4759.
[10]  Knowler, W.C., Barrett-Connor, E., Fowler, S.E., et al. (2002) Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 393-403.
[11]  Wadden, T.A., Webb, V.L., Moran, C.H. and Bailer, B.A. (2012) Lifestyle Modification for Obesity: New Developments in Diet, Physical Activity, and Behavior Therapy. Circulation, 125, 1157-1170.
[12]  Cliff, D.P., et al. (2010) The Impact of Child and Adolescent Obesity Treatment Interventions on Physical Activity: A Systematic Review. Obesity Reviews, 11, 516-530.
[13]  American Academy of Pediatrics (2014) Basic Recommendations for Promoting Physical Activity.
[14]  American Heart Association (1996) Dietary Guidelines for American Children: A Statement for Health Professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 94, 1795-1800.
[15]  Cole, T.J., Bellizzi, M.C., Flegal, K.M. and Dietz, W.H. (2000) Establishing a Standard Definition for Child Overweight and Obesity Worldwide: International Survey. British Medical Journal, 320, 1240-1243.
[16]  Al-Hazzaa, H.M. and Al-Ahmadi, M. (2003) A Self-Reported Questionnaire for the Assessment of Physical Activity in Youth 15 - 25 Years: Development, Reliability and Construct Validity. Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, 4, 279-291.
[17]  Al-Hazzaa, H.M., Al-Sobayel, H.I. and Musaiger, A.O. (2011) Convergent Validity of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS) Physical Activity Questionnaire. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 3810-3820.
[18]  Ridley, K., Ainsworth, B.E. and Olds, T.S. (2008) Development of a Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 45.
[19]  Ainsworth, B.E., et al. (2000) Compendium of Physical Activities: An Update of Activity Codes and MET Intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, S498-S504.
[20]  Kesäniemi, A., Riddoch, C.J., Reeder, B., Blair, S.N. and Sørensen, T.I.A. (2010) Review Advancing the Future of Physical Activity Guidelines in Canada: An Independent Expert Panel Interpretation of the Evidence. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 41.
[21]  Hills, A.P., Andersen, L.B. and Byrne, N.M. (2011) Physical Activity and Obesity in Children. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 866-870.
[22]  Ho, M., et al. (2012) Effectiveness of Lifestyle Interventions in Child Obesity: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Pediatrics, 130, e1647-e1671.
[23]  Hughes, A.R., et al. (2008) Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Best-Practice Individualized Behavioral Program for Treatment of Childhood Overweight: Scottish Childhood Overweight Treatment Trial (SCOTT). Pediatrics, 121, e539- e546.
[24]  McCallum, Z., et al. (2007) Outcome Data from the LEAP (Live, Eat and Play) Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Primary Care Intervention for Childhood Overweight/Mild Obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 630-636.
[25]  Nemet, D., Barkan, S., Epstein, Y., Friedland, O., Kowen, G. and Eliakim, A. (2005) Short-and Long-Term Beneficial Effects of a Combined Dietary-Behavioral-Physical Activity Intervention for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity. Pediatrics, 115, e443-e449.
[26]  Seo, D.-C. and Sa, J. (2008) A Meta-Analysis of Psycho-Behavioral Obesity Interventions among US Multiethnic and Minority Adults. Preventive Medicine, 47, 573-582.
[27]  Metcalf, B., Henley, W. and Wilkin, T. (2012) Effectiveness of Intervention on Physical Activity of Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials with Objectively Measured Outcomes (EarlyBird 54). BMJ, 345, e5888.
[28]  Swinburn, B.A., et al. (2011) The Global Obesity Pandemic: Shaped by Global Drivers and Local Environments. The Lancet, 378, 804-814.
[29]  Wing, R.R. (1999) Physical Activity in the Treatment of the Adulthood Overweight and Obesity: Current Evidence and Research Issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, S547-S552.
[30]  Vogels, N., Egger, G., Plasqui, G. and Westerterp, K.R. (2004) Estimating Changes in Daily Physical Activity Levels over Time: Implication for Health Interventions from a Novel Approach. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 607-610.
[31]  Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (2002) Physical Activity, Fitness and Fatness among Saudi Children and Adolescents: Implications for Cardiovascular Health. Saudi Medical Journal, 23, 144-150.
[32]  Brennan, L., Walkley, J., Wilks, R., Fraser, S.F. and Greenway, K. (2013) Physiological and Behavioural Outcomes of a Randomised Controlled Trial of a Cognitive Behavioural Lifestyle Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adolescents. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 7, e23-e41.
[33]  Bauman, A.E., et al. (2012) Correlates of Physical Activity: Why Are Some People Physically Active and Others Not? The Lancet, 380, 258-271.
[34]  Al-Eisa, E., Buragadda, S. and Melam, G.R. (2014) Association between Physical Activity and Psychological Status among Saudi Female Students. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 238.
[35]  Malinauskas, B.M., Raedeke, T.D., Aeby, V.G., Smith, J.L. and Dallas, M.B. (2006) Dieting Practices, Weight Perceptions, and Body Composition: A Comparison of Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese College Females. Nutrition Journal, 5, 11.
[36]  Dumith, S.C., Hallal, P.C., Reis, R.S. and Kohl III, H.W. (2011) Worldwide Prevalence of Physical Inactivity and Its Association with Human Development Index in 76 Countries. Preventive Medicine, 53, 24-28.
[37]  Al-Eisa, E.S. and Al-Sobayel, H.I. (2012) Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2012, Article ID: 642187.
[38]  Machado-Rodrigues, A.M., Coelho e Silva, M.J., Mota, J., Santos, R.M., Cumming, S.P. and Malina, R.M. (2012) Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure in Adolescent Male Sport Participants and Nonparticipants Aged 13 to 16 Years. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9, 626-623.
[39]  Al-Nakeeb, Y., et al. (2012) Obesity, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior amongst British and Saudi Youth: A Cross-Cultural Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 1490-1506.
[40]  Braithwaite, I., et al. (2013) The Worldwide Association between Television Viewing and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study. PLoS ONE, 8, e74263.
[41]  Tremblay, M.S., et al. (2011) Systematic Review of Sedentary Behaviour and Health Indicators in School-Aged Children and Youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 98.
[42]  Strasburger, V.C. (2011) Children, Adolescents, Obesity, and the Media. Pediatrics, 128, 201-208.
[43]  Danielsson, P., Kowalski, J., Ekblom, Ö. and Marcus, C. (2012) Response of Severely Obese Children and Adolescents to Behavioral Treatment. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166, 1103-1108.
[44]  Whitlock, E.P., et al. (2010) Effectiveness of Weight Management Interventions in Children: A Targeted Systematic Review for the USPSTF. Pediatrics.
[45]  Oude Luttikhuis, H., et al. (2009) Interventions for Treating Obesity in Children. The Cochrane Library.
[46]  Ströbl, V., Knisel, W., Landgraf, U. and Faller, H. (2013) A Combined Planning and Telephone Aftercare Intervention for Obese Patients: Effects on Physical Activity and Body Weight after One Year. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 45, 198-205.
[47]  Wafa, S.W. (2012) Randomised Controlled Trial of a Good Practice Approach to Treatment of Childhood Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life and Habitual Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour of Obese Children in Malaysia. Dissertation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow.


comments powered by Disqus