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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4915 matches for " Obesity "
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Manejo anestésico del paciente obeso
Villamil Cendales,Andrea Paola;
Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología , 2006,
Abstract: obesity has increased in the last times, from 12% to 19% (1). that is why, the anesthesiologist is faced more frequently with obese patients, not only for weight reduction procedures, but also for any other interventions. for this reason is very important to be able to clearly understand the physiological changes, and the effects of obesity in the anesthetic management. the obese patient is defined as such with a bmi (body mass index), higher than 30 morbil obesity bmi > 40 (2). the mortaly rate of the patient with morbid obesity is 12 times higher in people with ages between 25 and 34 years old, and six times higher in people with ages between 35 and 44 years of age. this risk increases with the presence of hypertension, diabetes, respiratory failure, arthritis, gastric reflux, alveolar hypoventilation syndrome, pulmonary htpertension, left ventricular failure and some types of cancer.
Breastfeeding and obesity: a meta-analysis  [PDF]
Jeanne M. Stolzer
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13013
Abstract: Over the last decade, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity include, but are not limited to, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and elevated cholesterol levels. As a direct result of obesity, data indicates that these diseases are now being detected in an unprecedented number of American children, adolescents, and adults. Although the major cause of the obesity epidemic in America has thus far been attributed to excessive caloric intake and lack of physical activity, this paper will explore the pivotal role that breastfeeding plays in the prevention of overweight and obesity throughout the life course. Epidemiological data demonstrates that breastfeeding significantly reduces the incidence of overweight and obesity and that exclusive and long term breastfeeding has been strongly correlated with a reduction in LDL cholesterol, blood pressure related disorders, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular dysfunction. While it is certain that diet and exer cise are integral factors associated with overweight and obesity, the time has come for a collective recognition of the protective effects associated with breastfeeding if we are serious in our endeavor to eradicate the overweight and obesity epidemic in America.
A Comparison of Polysomnographic Variables between Adolescents with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Healthy Controls  [PDF]
Gideon de Sousa, Bernhard Schlüter, Thomas Menke, Eckardt Trowitzsch, Werner Andler, Thomas Reinehr
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2010.12009
Abstract: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is clearly increased in adults with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The symptoms of PCOS usually begin around menarche. However, data concerning poly¬somnographic variables in adolescents with PCOS are limited. As obesity is a well-known risk factor for OSAS, we aimed to analyze differences in polysomnographic variables between obese and extremely obese adolescents with PCOS and healthy, normal-weight, obese, and extremely obese controls. Methods: Sixteen obese and 17 extremely obese adolescents with PCOS, 18 normal-weight, 17 obese, and 13 extremely obese controls underwent polysomno¬graphy to compare mean transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (Sat O2), apnea-index (AI), hypopnea- index (HI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the absolute number of obstructive apneas (NOA), percentage sleep stages 3 and 4 of non REM-sleep (stages 3 & 4), percentage of REM-sleep (% REM), sleep-onset latency, and sleep efficiency. Results: We found no significant differences between the groups concerning AI, HI, AHI, NOA, and stages 3 & 4. Significant differ¬ences between the groups were found regarding Sat O2, % REM, sleep-onset latency, and sleep efficiency. Conclusions: Concerning the respiratory variables, adolescents with PCOS do not seem to differ from healthy controls regardless of weight status, but there seem to be differences in sleep architecture.
Cirurgia em obesos mórbidos: experiência pessoal
Garrido Junior, Arthur B.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302000000100017
Abstract: practicing surgery for morbid obesity for 21 years and after 1,007 operations, using different techniques, we selected gastric bypass as our first choice method, for its efficiency and low tolerable undesirable effects. 795 patients were operated, mostly using capella's procedure: vertical gastric division, with silastic ring and roux-en-y bypass. mean preoperative bmi was 60kg/m2, 89.5% of the patients had comorbidities. severe postoperative complications (pulmonary embolism and digestive fistulas) occurred in 3.6% of the patients, causing 8 deaths (1%). follow up through 30 months revealed mean percent body weight loss of 40% from the pre-operative weight, with stabilization after 1 year. pre-operative bmi: 60kg/m2 (mean); final bmi: 35kg/m2 (mean). as consequence, great relief on comorbidities was registered.
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a marker of cardiovascular risk in obese children and adolescents  [PDF]
Hatem Hamed El-shorbagy, Ibraheim Abdel-aziz Ghoname
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.29158
Abstract: Background and aim of the work: High-sensiti- vity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker of low grade inflammatory state, which characterises an atherosclerotic process. The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and a systemic low-grade inflammatory state. These disorders may arise at a very early age in obese children. We aimed to assess the utility of (hsCRP) as a marker of cardiovascular risk in obese children and adolescents. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 100 obese child and adolescents (6-16 years). 50 apparently healthy children of matched age and sex served as control. All patients and controls were subjected to: 1-complete history taking. 2-anthropometric measurements and clinical examination including body height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure. 3-laboratory investigations in- cluding fasting glucose, lipid profile, apolipoprotiens and (hsCRP) were assessed. Metabolic syndrome patients had to meet three out of five criteria: concentration of triglycerides (TG) ≥ 110 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C) ≤ 40 mg/dL, waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile, glucose concentration ≥ 110 mg/dL, and systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile. Results, height, weight BMI and blood pressure were significantly higher in the obese than the control. Obese group had significantly higher (hsCRP) levels than control group, (p < 0.01) and significantly higher LDL-C, triglyceride (TG), and lower HDL-C than the control group. Log (hsCRP) showed a positive correlation with BMI (p < 0.001), blood pressure, and TG. The pre- valence of the metabolic syndrome was 24%. Mean concentrations of (hsCRP) were higher among patients who had the metabolic syndrome. Among whom, 35% had a concentration of (hsCRP) > 3.0 mg/L, a concentration considered to place adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In multiple logistic regression analysis only abdominal obesity was significantly associated with (hsCRP). Conclusion: me- tabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity among our patients predispose to cardiovascular disease later in life through early low grade inflammation. (hsCRP) is one of the inflammatory markers that can be easily estimated in these patients.
Comparing Height-Adjusted Waist Circumference Indices: The Fels Longitudinal Study  [PDF]
Roy T. Sabo, Chungfeng Ren, Shumei S. Sun
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2012.23006
Abstract: Objectives: While researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of adjusting waist circumference (WC) for height, no standard has yet been established. In this study we contrast three standard methods for indexing WC by height (using height, root-height and height-squared) via comparisons with age-specific optimal indices. Study Design and Setting: Measurements from 722 male and 746 female Caucasian participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study were used. The three standard waist-circumference indices (as well as an optimal index) were determined for ages 2 through 18, and for every decade thereafter to 70 years of age. Pearson correlations were used to assess the suitability of all indices. Results: The three standard indices remain correlated with the original WC measures, though each was associ-ated with height at some ages. Waist-to-height ratio is suitable for some childhood ages (boys: 5 - 9, 13 - 16; girls: 4 - 7, 9, 11 - 14) but not for adult ages; Root-height works well mostly for older teenage children and adults but not in early childhood and adolescence; Height-squared is nowhere suitable. In both men and women, the optimal indexing factor ranged between root-height and height-squared in childhood, and is close to root-height in adulthood. Conclusions: No one index is most suitable, as WC indexed by root-height is suitable for use with measurements from teenage children and adults, while waist-to-height ratio is generally suitable for use in children. WC indexed by height-squared is nowhere suitable.
Risk of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland  [PDF]
Thomas Volken, Peter Rüesch
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48082
Abstract: We assessed the risk of overweight and obesity for six large migrant groups in Switzerland. We used population-based survey data form the Swiss Migrant Health Survey 2010 and the Swiss Health Survey 2007. The sample comprised permanent residents aged 17 - 64 years (n = 14,637). Multivariate logistic regressions have been used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Compared with Swiss nationals, the odds of being obese were 1.97 times higher for Turkish nationals (CI-95 1.26, 3.07), 1.73 times higher for Kosovan nationals (CI-95 1.09, 2.74) and 3.42 times higher for Serbs (CI-95 2.28, 5.12). The chance of being obese was not statistically different between Swiss nationals and those from Portugal, Italy, and Germany. The chance of being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25) was higher for migrants than for Swiss nationals. The respective odds were 1.54 times higher for nationals from Portugal (CI-95 1.13, 2.11), 2.05 times higher for those from Turkey (CI-95 1.50, 2.78), 2.67 times higher for those from Serbia (CI-95 1.93, 3.68), 2.68 times higher for those from Kosovo (CI-95 2.01, 3.56), and 2.16 times higher for nationals from Italy (CI-95 1.54, 3.02). We suggest that preventive initiatives should take into account the specific needs of migrants as well as the needs of persons with low education from all nationalities.
Ambivalence and obesity stigma in decisions about weight management: A qualitative study  [PDF]
Ian Brown, Alex McClimens
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A224
Background: Many adults do not take up weight management interventions even after apparently deciding to do so. Further research about decision making prior to the intervention would be useful. This paper presents a qualitative study exploring the process of decision making and the influences of obesity stigma. Methods: A pragmatic qualitative methodology, conducting indepth interviews with 52 participants all with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and experience of efforts at weight management. Equal numbers of men and women with mean age 56.9 years completed interviews. Inductive analyses proceeded through systematic steps over a series of iterations. Findings: Decision making is difficult in the context of on-going mixed feelings over a long time. Thoughts and feelings become ingrained with habits and it is hard to separate out what is needed to think through a good decision. Thinking about weight brings a large volume of thoughts and feelings and apparent options or action choices. The volume of thoughts makes decisions difficult but, in the context of obesity stigma, many of the thoughts are negative. A variable sensitivity to these stigma-related thoughts adds further ambivalence and inhibition for taking deciions. The need for further thinking does not stand out in the context of the emotional resolving of thoughts about personal responsibility arising from obesity stigma. Conclusions: Obesity stigma contributes to a deeper ambivalence in the decision process and hence difficulty in decision making about weight management. Decision aid interventions and training of health care staff in communication skills for shared decision making are needed.
A novel algorithm for describing population level trends in body weight  [PDF]
Azadeh Alimadad, Carrie Matteson, Warren L. Hare, Ozge Karanfil, Diane T. Finegood
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A217

Modeling population trends and predicting the impact of interventions to address obesity requires algorithms for predicting body weight status in the future. Predictions can be based on statistical consideration of different risk factors, or be an extrapolation of past and current trends. Despite the well known correlation between previous and future weight, individual weight history has not been used to predict future trends. We developed a novel population-level model to examine trends of different classes of body weight considering individual body weight histories from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). A subset of data used to assess the predictive ability of our proposed model with actual data. Our results confirm the importance of weight history in determining future weight status. Over 80% of individuals in a specific weight category (normal, overweight, obese) will stay in the same weight category after two years (except overweight females). The length of body weight stability was also found to be important. The probability of remaining normal weight increased with longer prior periods of being at a normal weight over 18 years (0.834 to 0.893). We demonstrate that an individual’s most probable weight class in the future is consistent with their maximal historical weight class.

Impact of obesity and diabetes on arthritis: An update  [PDF]
Rajesh Pandey, Narendra Kumar, Seema Paroha, Ram Prasad, Mukesh Yadav, Shalini Jain, Hariom Yadav
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51019

The incidence of obesity and diabetes has been increased with alarming rate in recent years and became a common problem around the globe including developing as well as in developed countries with incalculable social costs. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are two common co-morbidities occur together. Obesity and diabetes is closely associated with many diseases, osteoarthritis, hypertension, certain form of cancer, sleep-breathing disorders and coronary heart disease. Impacts of obesity and diabetes (insulin resistance) on arthritis have been seen in patients that we associated with combination of various factors like increased availability of high-energy foods, genetic susceptibility and decreased physical activity in modern society. Arthritis is becoming pandemic around the globe and its occurrence with obesity and diabetes has been observed more common than ever. Combination of these two chronic conditions makes these diseases more vulnerable for human health. Till now very limited information is established about the pathological and mechanistic correlation among these health ailments. In this review article we aimed to survey the literature covering the influence of obesity and diabetes on arthritis pathology and tried to establish correlation with these diseases.

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